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Chapter 3 2nd part

Cell division and protein synthesis

Gene a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that is a chemical set of instructions for making a specific protein
Translation MRNA changing one thing to another because of a signal
Messenger RNA Travels from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where the information in the copy is used to construct a protein by means of translation
Transfer RNA RNA that attaches to individual amino acids and transports them to the ribosomes where they are connected to form a protein polypeptide chain
Transcription Copies the proteins
Ribosomal RNA RNA that is associated with certain proteins to form ribosomes
Condons sequence of 3 nucleotides in mRNA that codes for a specific amino acid in a protein
Cell division process in making new cells for the body mitosis and meiosis formation of 2 daughter cells from a single parent cell
Diploid number the 46 chromosomes in the human body
Autosomes the remaining 22 chromosomes
Mitosis all cells of the body except those that give rise to sex cells, 2 step process, replicated and divided
Replication the duplication of cells in mitosis
Interphase the period between active cell divisions during which DNA is replicated
Chromatin thin strands of DNA throughout the nucleus
What are the stages in mitosis prophase metaphase, anaphase telophase
prophase first stage in mitosis spindle fibers extend from the centrioles to the centromeres
Metaphase second stage in mitosis the chromosomes align near the center of the cell
Anaphase the 3rd step of mitosis, centromeres separate, sets of chromosomes moved to the centriole at the poles of the cell
Telophase the last stage in mitosis, the chromosomes in the daughter cells organize to form 2 seperate nuclei.
Meiosis sex cells are formed. cells go through 2 divisions resulting in 4 nuclei
What are the stages in Meiosis early prophase 1 middle prophase 1 metaphase 1 anaphase 1 telephase 1
Haploid half the number of chromosomes found in other body cells
Created by: hayboy