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APUSH Chapters 3&4

Protestant ethic mid 1600's; a commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and pursuing worldly affairs.
**Mayflower Compact - 1620** A contract made by the voyagers on the Mayflower agreeing that they would form a simple government where majority ruled.
Fundamental Orders In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a Democratic government. It was the first constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' c
Navigation Laws In the 1660's England restricted the colonies; They couldn't trade with other countries. The colonies were only allowed to trade with England.
The Puritans They were a group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church. Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages came in 1620 with the Pilgrims and in 1629, which w
**Separatists** Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.
Quakers Members of the Religious Society of Friends; most know them as the Quakers. They believe in equality of all peoples and resist the military. They also believe that the religious authority is the decision of the individual (no outside influence.
Pilgrims Separatists; worried by "Dutchification" of their children they left Holland on the Mayflower in 1620; they landed in Massachusetts; they proved that people could live in the new world
New England Confederation The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that effected all four colonies.
Calvinism Set of beliefs that the Puritans followed. In the 1500's John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in Calvinist followers wanting to practice religion,
**Massachusetts Bay Colony** (company) One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community
Dominion of New England in 1686, New England, in conjunction with New York and New Jersey, consolidated under the royal authority -- James II. Charters and self rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of
Predestination Primary idea behind Calvinism; states that salvation or damnation are foreordained and unalterable; first put forth by John Calvin in 1531; was the core belief of the Puritans who settled New England in the seventeenth century.
Freemen colonial period; term used to describe indentured servants who had finished their terms of indenture and could live freely on their own land.
visible saints A religious belief developed by John Calvin held that a certain number of peole werep predestined to go to heaven by God.
covenant A binding agreement made by the Puritans whose doctrine said the whole purpose of the government was to enforce God's laws. This applied to believers and non-believers.
Protestant Reformation a religious revolution, during the 16th century. It ended the supremacy of the Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant Churches. Martin Luther and John Calvin were influential in the Protestant Revolution.
**King Philip II** He was king of Spain during 1588. During this year he sent out his Spanish Armada against England. He lost the invasion of England. Philip II was also the leader against the Protestant Reformation.
**John Cotton** a puritan who was a fiery early clergy educated at Cambridge University, emigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution by the church of England. He defended the government's duty to enforce religious rules.hours in a single day.
**Sir Edmond Andros** Head of the Dominion of New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by the colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of England, changed many colonial laws and traditions without the consent of the representatives
The "elect" John Calvin and the Puritans souls who have been destined for eternal bliss or eternal torment; since the beginning of time ; it was discussed by John Calvin in "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
**Patroonship** Patroonship was vast Dutch feudal estates fronting the Hudson River in the early 1600's. They were granted to promoters who agreed to settle fifty people on them.
Henry Hudson Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.
William Bradford A pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."
**Peter Stuyvesant** A Dutch General; He led a small military expedition in 1664. He was known as "Father Wooden Leg". Lost the New Netherlands to the English. He was governor of New Netherlands
**Thomas Hooker** 1635; a Boston Puritan, brought a group of fellow Boston Puritans to newly founded Hartford, Connecticut.
William Penn English Quaker;" Holy Experiment"; persecuted because he was a Quaker; 1681 he got a grant to go over to the New World; area was Pennsylvania; "first American advertising man"; freedom of worship there
John Winthrop John Winthrop immigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."
**John Calvin** John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
Anne Hutchinson A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts's religious and political system.
Roger Williams He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration.
**Jeremiads** In the 1600's, Puritan preachers noticed a decline in the religious devotion of second-generation settlers.they preached a type of sermon called the jeremiad. The jeremiads focused on the teachings of Jeremiah, a Biblical prophet who warned of doom.
**Middle Passage** middle segment of the forced journey that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600's; it consisted of the dangerous trip across the Atlantic Ocean; many slaves perished on this segment of the journey.
BACON'S REBELLION In 1676, Bacon, a young planter led a rebellion against people who were friendly to the Indians. In the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia and was murdered by Indians.
**LEISLER'S REBELLION - 1689-1691** an ill- starred bloody insurgency in New York City took place between landholders and merchants.
Halfway Covenant A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members
William Berkeley He was a British colonial governor of Virginia from 1642-52. He showed that he had favorites in his second term which led to the Bacon's rebellion in 1676 ,which he ruthlessly suppressed. He had poor frontier defense.
Headright system way to attract immigrants; gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid their way and/or any plantation owner that paid an immigrants way; mainly a system in the southern colonies.
**Conversion** The fact of changing one's religion or beliefs or the action of persuading someone else to change theirs
**Doctrine of a calling** This was a doctrine believed by John Winthrop and many of Puritans instructing them to do God's work.
**antinomianism** the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture).
**Glorious Revolution** English Revolution: the revolution against James II; there was little armed resistance to William and Mary in England although battles were fought in Scotland and Ireland (1688-1689).
**Great Puritan Migration** the migration in the period of English settlers, primarily Puritans to Massachusetts and the warm islands of the West Indies,and the sugar rich island of Barbados, 1630-40. They came in family groups,motivated to practice their Puritan religion
**Protestant Reformation** a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
**William Berkeley** was a governor of Virginia
**Nathaniel Bacon** was a wealthy colonist of the Virginia Colony, famous as the instigator of Bacon's Rebellion of 1676
**Indentured servitude** An indentured servant was a worker, typically a laborer or tradesman, under contract to an employer for a fixed period of time, typically three to seven years, in exchange for their transportation, food, clothing, lodging and other necessities
**Slave codes** Slave codes were laws which each US state, or colony, enacted which defined the status of slaves and the rights of masters. Such codes gave slave-owners absolute power over their human property
**Hierarchy** A system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority
**Tidewater** Water affected by the tides, especially tidal streams.
**Blue blood** Noble or aristocratic descent
**Half-Way Covenant** a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose
Created by: lyssa13