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Unit2 Definitions

Unit 2 definitions

Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Element a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
Atom the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element.
Molecule a group of atoms that are held together by the chemical forces; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substance's chemical properties.
Compound a substance made up of 2 or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.
Pure substance a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties.
Mixture a combination of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined.
Homogeneous Mixture Components are evenly are distributed are evenly distributed.
Heterogeneous Mixture substances are not evenly distributed.
Melting point the temperature and pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid.
Freezing Point the temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid.
Boiling Point the temperature and pressure at which a liquid becomes a gas.
Density the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance.
Reactivity the capacity of a substance to combine chemically with another substance.
Chemical Property describes how a substance changes into a new substance, either by combining with other elements or by breaking a part into new substances.
Physical Property characteristics that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance.
Chemical Change a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties.
Physical Change a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties.
Fluid a non-solid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other, as in a gas or liquid.
Plasma a state of matter that consists of free-moving ions and electrons.
Energy the capacity to do work.
Temperature a measure of how hot or old something is; specifically a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object.
Thermal Energy the total kinetic energy of a substance's atoms.
Kinetic Energy the energy an object has due to motion.
Potential Energy the energy an object has because of its position, its pressure, and The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors
Compressed reduced in volume by pressure; Be squeezed or pressed together or into a smaller space; pressed tightly together
Kinetic Theory of Matter the theory that all matter is made up of a large number of small particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant, random motion. ...
Evaporation the change of state from a liquid to a gas.
Condensation the change of state from a gas to a liquid.
Boiling Heat (a liquid) to the temperature at which it bubbles and turns to vapor
Vaporization transition from either a solid or liquid to a gas. Examples of this are evaporation, boiling, and sublimation.
Solidification the process in which a liquid turns into a solid when cold or dry enough; which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point. (Also known as freezing)
Sublimation the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas.
deposition the process in which material is laid down.
Melting the process in which a solid becomes a liquid when its temperature is below its melting point.
freezing A form of solidification where a liquid becomes a solid when its temperature is below its freezing point.
Law of conservation of mass mass cannot be created or destroyed.
Law of conservation of energy energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Pressure the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface.
Pascal the SI unit of pressure; equal to the force of 1N exerted over an area of 1m^2 (Symbol PA)
Buoyant Force the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a fluid.
Viscosity the resistance of a gas or liquid to flow.
Archimedes' Principle the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid that the object displaces.
Pascal's Principle A change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid will be transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.
Hydraulic Device Uses liquids to transmit pressure from one point to another.
Bernoulli's Principle States that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure of the moving fluid decreases.
Gas Laws the laws that state the mathematical relationships between the volume, temperature, pressure, and quantity of gas.
Charles'Law for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the gas's temperature increases. Likewise, the volume of the gas decreases as the gas's temperature decreases.
Boyle's Law For a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas increases as the gas's pressure decreases. Likewise, the volume of a gas decreases as the gas's pressure increases.
Gay-Lussac's Law the pressure of a gas increases as the temperature increases, if the volume of the gas does not change. The pressure decreases as the temperature decreases.
Created by: mmalone15