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NCLEX - Patho

Pathophysiology NCLEX

QuestionAnswer
There are two forms of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)found in the cell. they are the rough ER and the smooth ER. What does the rough ER do in a cell? produces proteins
The Golgi complex, or Golgi bodies, consists of stacks of thin, flattened vesicles or sacs within the cell. These Golgi bodies are found near the nucleus and function in association with the ER. What is one purpose of the Golgi Complex b
In Tay-Sachs disease, an autosomal recessice disorder, hexosaminidase A, which is the lysosomal enzyme needed for degrading the GM2 ganglioside found in nerve cell membranes, is deficient. Where does it do the most harm? c
The mitochondria are literally "the powerhouse" of the cell because they transform organic compounds into energy trhat is easily accessible to the cell. What does the mitochondria do? a
The Golgi complex, or Golgi bodies, consists of stacks of thin, flattened vesicles or sacs within the cell. These Golgi bodies are found near the nucleus and function in association with the ER. What is one purpose of the Golgi Complex b
In Tay-Sachs disease, an autosomal recessice disorder, hexosaminidase A, which is the lysosomal enzyme needed for degrading the GM2 ganglioside found in nerve cell membranes, is deficient. Where does it do the most harm? c
The mitochondria are literally "the powerhouse" of the cell because they transform organic compounds into energy trhat is easily accessible to the cell. What does the mitochondria do? d
The cell membrane is also called what? a
Some messengers, such as thryoid hormone and steroid hormones, do not bind to membrane receptors but move directly across the lipid layer of the cell membrane and are carried to the cell nucleus. What do they do at the cell nucleus? b
The Krebs cycle provides a common pathway for the metabolism of nutrients by the body. the Krebs cycle forms two pyruvate molecules. Each of the two pyruvate molecules formed in the cytoplasm from one molecule of glucose yields another molecule of what? c
when cells use energy to move ions against an electrical or chemical gradient, the process is called what? d
Groups of cells that are closely associated in structure and have common or similar functions are called tissues. What are the types of tissue in the human body? a
Endocrine glands are epithelial structures that have had their connection with the surface obliterate during development. How are these glands described? b
Each skeletal muscle is a discrete organ made up of hundreds or thousands of muscle fibers. What happens during muscle contraction? c
The three main parts are the nucleus, the cell membrane and the what? cytoplasm
Bilirubin is a normal major pigment of bile; its excess accumulation within cells is evidenced clinically by a yellowish discoloration of the skin and sclera, a condition called what? jaundice
Cells in multicellular organisms need to communicate with one another to coordinate their function and control their growth. The human body has several means of transmitting information between cells, what are they? acd
The human body has non-dividing cells that have left the cell cycle and are not capable of mitotic division once an infant is born. What are the non-dividng cells? bcd
Smooth muscle is often called ______ muscle because it contracts spontaneously or through activity of the autonomic nervous system involuntary
The nurse knows that the patient needs further teaching when he makes which remark? This tumor I have, will I die from it?
The patient asks how cancer moves from one place to another in the body. What would the nurse answer? Cancer cells replicate and form a chain that spreads from the original tumor site to the site of the metastatic lesion.
What are identified risk factors for cancer? Hormonal factors, chemicals, and immunologic mechanisms
Which cancer carries the highest risk of developing in someone who carries the gene? Colon cancer
One of the most potent procarcinogens is a group of dietary carcinogens called_____. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Which cancers are often found because of effusions? Lung and ovarian cancers
Which serum tumor markers have been proven to be among the most useful in clinical practice? Alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin
In adults, what is growth hormone deficiency associated with? Dyslipidemia
What is the reason why chemotherapy is commonly used more in childhood cancer than adult cancer? Pediatric tumors are more responsive to chemotherapy than adult cancers
Which drug is considered a radiosensitizer? Cisplatin
The term ____ refers to an abnormal mass of tissue in which the growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues. Neoplasm
The nurse answers that a malignant neoplasm is made of up less well differentiated cells that have which of the following abilities? Break loose, enter the circulatory or lymphatic systems, and form secondary malignant tumors at other sites
How else are cancer cells different from normal cells? Cancer cells have an unlimited life span, lost contact inhibition, and are termed genetically unstable.
Self-examination Malignant melanoma
PSA Prostatic
Pap smear Cervical
Mammography Breast
What late effects might someone fear of that they received during their childhood cancer? Cardiomypathy and pulmonary fibrosis, cognitive dysfunction and hormonal dysfunction, impaired growth and second maligancies
What mechanisms play a part in the formation of edema? Mechanisms that increase capillary permeability & filtration pressure, produce obstruction to the flow of lymph, and decrease capillary colloidal osmotic pressure
Regulates the ECF volume Sodium
Maintenance of the osmotic integrity of cells Potassium
Increases the absorption of calcium from the intestine Calcitriol
Needed for metabolism of glucose, fat, and protein Phosphate
Required for cellular energy metabolism Magnesium
What else does the effective circulating volume regulate? Sodium
What may be reasons that there is excessive ADH secretion in the body? Antipsychotic medications and smoking
What are the causes of nephrogenic DI? Fluid volume increases at a rate the body cannot tolerate
Where is potassium particularly important? the heart
What other hormone is necessary in the body for vitamin D to work? Parathyroid hormone
What condition can cause an overproduction of phosphatonin resulting in hypophosphatemia? Tumor-induced osteomalacia
What is severe hypermagnesemia associated with? Muscle and respiratory paralysis
What is the solubility coefficient of CO2? 0.03
The body regulates the pH of its fluids by what mechanism? Chemical buffer systems, of the body fluids, the lungs, and the kidneys
How long can this mechanism function when there is a change in the pH of body fluids? Days
What laboratory test is a good indicator of how the buffer systems in the body are working? Base excess or deficit test
How do metabolic disorders change the pH of the body? Alter plasma HCO3
What are the built in compensatory mechanisms considered? Interim measures that permit survival
Which laboratory test is used to determine the cause of metabolic acidosis? Anion gap
When the pH falls to less than 7.0, what can occur in the cardiovascular system? Reduce cardiac contractility, causing cardiac dysrhythmias
What signs and symptoms of respiratory acidosis might you see? Irritability, muscle twitching, psychological disturbances
What is a common cause of respiratory alkalosis? Hyperventilation syndrome
What else do control systems do? Control life processes
What serves to fulfill the need for a stable internal env. to function optimally? Control systems
Which of the following diseases have been linked to stress and are thought to be encouraged by the body itself when it can no longer adapt to the stress in a healthy manner? Rheumatic disorders
What happens when the body encounters stress? Inhibition of reproductive function
Which health problems have been linked to a stress response that is chronic and excessive? Suicide and immune disorders
The psychological responses may be ___ Inappropriate and sustained
The method of adaption that allows the body to live with only one pair of organs is called? Anatomic reserve
How do social networks affect how a body deals with stress? By mobilizing the resources of the person
In which of these clients could the acute stress response cause further problems? Client with heart disease
Which of the following is the disorder that can occur when the stress response is chronically activated? Posttraumatic stress disorder
In a _____ organism it is necessary for the composition of the internal env. to be compatible with the survival needs of the individual cells. multicellular
Seyle suggested that stress could have positive influences on the body, and these periods of positive stress are called ____ eustress
Which are non-pharmacologic treatments of stress disorders? Music and massage therapy
Endocrine regulator of pituitary and adrenal activity and neurotransmitter involved in autonomic nervous system activity, metabolism, and behavior Corticootropin-releasing factor
Most rapid of the stress responses, representing the basic survival response Fight-or-flight response
Physiologic changes in the neuroendocrine, autonomic, and immune systems occurring in response to real or perceived challenges to homeostasis Allostatic load
Increased corticosteroid production and atrophy of the thymus Endocrine-immune interactions
What do the neuroendocrine and the immune system have in common? They share common signal pathways, hormones and neuropeptides can change what immune cells do, and mediators of the immune system can modify neuroendocrine function
Adipose tissue is now known to be both an endocrine and a paracrine organ because of the factors it secrets. What are these factors? Leptin,Adipokines, and Adiponectin
When nutritional requirements are needed for a specific group, what dietary requirements are used? Estimated average requirement
Fat is a necessary part of the diet. The food and nutrition board has set what percent of fat as nessessary in our diet? 20%
It is the hypothalamus that tells us when we are hungry or full.Its message is mediated by input from the gastrointestinal tract. There are also centers in the hypothalamus that regulate energy balance & metabolism based on the secretion of what hormone? Thyroid and adrenocortical hormones
How is BMI calculated? BMI= weight(kg)/Height(meter)
Two types of obesity are recognized: upper body obesity and lower body obesity. How is the type of obesity determine? Waist/hip circumference
Anorexia nervosa,bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorders are becoming more and more common where assessment for these disorders are as young as 9 yrs old. in the adult pop. what means if controlling binge eating is most prevalent in men? Compulsive exercises
Childhood obesity has been recognized as a mjor problem in the pediatric population. What diseases are pediatricians now seeing in their clients as a direct result of childhood obesity? Dyslipidemia
Malnutrition is not something that is considered common in the general population in the US. However certain populations are more prone to malnutrition than others. One of these populations is hospitalized patients. Why is this true? pain and medications can decrease appetite
The control system of the body act in many ways to maintain homeostasis. these control systems regulate the functions of the cell and integrate the functions of different organ systems. what else do they do? Control life process
It has long been known that our bodies need a stable internal environment to function optimally. what serves to fulfill this need? Control systems
Which of of the following diseases have been linked to stress and are thought to be encouraged by the body itself when it can no longer adapt to the stress in a health manner? chpt 9 #3 pg51 Rheumatic disorders
A number of responses occur in the body to the release of neurohormones when the body encounters stress, including which of the following? Inhibition of reproductive function
Chronic and excessive activation of the stress responses effects long-term health problems.The stress response can also result from chronic illness.Which health problems have been linked to a stress response that is chronic & excessive? Suicide and immune disorders
our bodys response to psychological perceived threats is not regulated to the same degree as our bodies response to physiologic perceived threats. The physiological responses may be? inappropriate and sustained
adaptation is a created balance between the stressor and the ability to deal with it in ones body. The method of adaptation that allows the body to live with one pair of organs is called? chpt 9 #7 pg 51 Anatomic reserve
Psychological factors can impact the body's response to stress either positively or negativley. Its shown that social networks play a prt in the psychosocial and physical integrity of a person.How do social networks affect how a body deals w/ stress? By mobilizing the resource of the person
The acute stress response can be detrimental in people with pre-existing physical or mental health problems. In which of these clients could the acute stress response cause further problems? Client with heart disease
Some clients experience chronic activation of the stress response as a result of expeirencing a sever trauma. Which of the following is the disorder that can occur when the stress response is chronically activated? Posttraumatic stress disorder
In a _________organism it is mecessary for the compistion of the internal environment to be compatible with the survival needs of the individual cells. Multicellular
Selye suggested that stress could have positive influences on the body, and these periods of positive stress are called_________? Eustress
treatment of stress disorders is to one aid to clients by avoiding health risk related coping mechanisms and 2nd is to engage them in alternative strategies to reduce stress. Which are nonpharmological treatments of stress disorders? Music Therapy and Massage Therapy
Endocrine regulator of pituitary and adrenal activity and neurtransmitter involved in autonomic nervouse system activity,metablolism, and behavior. Corticotropin-releasing factor
Most rapid of the stress responses,reprsenting the basic survival response Fight - or - Flight Response
Phsyiologic changes in the neuroendocrine autonomic and immune systems occurring in response to real or perceived challenges to homeostasis Allostatic Load
Increased corticosteroid production and atrophy of the thymus Endocrine-immune interactions
It is thought that there is an interation between the neuroendocrine system and teh immune system. It has been postulated that these interations play a significant rile in autoimmune disease. these system have what in common? select all that apply they share common signal pathways. Hormones and neuropeptides can changewhat immune cells do.They are symbotic systems and cannot work without each other.
What are the phases of wound healing? select all that apply The proliferation phase, inflammatory phase and maturational phase
Hyperbaric treatment for wound healing is used for wounds that have problems in healing due to hypoxia or infection. It works by raising the partial pressure of oxygen in plasma. How does hyperbaric oxygen treatment enhance wound healing? Promotion of angiogenesis
In the elderly, wound healing is impaired or delayed because of the structural and functional changes in the skin that occur with aging. Why do neonates and small children have problems with wound healing? They don't have the reserves needed
What happens to the healing process when host defenses are overwhelmed by infectious agents? The formation of granulation tissues is impaired
In normal tissue the size of the cell population is determined by which of the following? select all that apply Balance of cell proliferation, death by apoptosis and emergence of newly differentiated cells
What is the term used to define the complete set of proteins encoded by a genome? Proteome
Steps in cell replication in order 1. separation of the two strands of DNA 2. complementary molecule is duplicated next to each original strand 3. two strands become four strands 4. mitosis occurs
One of 23 chromosomes are sex chromosome, what are the other 22 pairs called? Autosomes
On rare occasions accidental errors in duplication of DNA occur. What are these called? Mutations
What type of inheritance involves multiple genes at different loci, with each gene exerting a small additive effect in determining a trait? Polygenic inheritance
What is the syndrome when the deletion is inherited from the mother? Angelman syndrome
What kind of trait is expressed only in homozygous pairing? Recessive trait
What is being compared when DNA fingerprinting is used in forensic pathology? The banding pattern
What are the compounds usually used in gene therapy? Cloned DNA sequences
The human genome sequence is almost 99.9% the same in all people. WHich is thought to account for the differences in each humans behaviors, physical traits and to disease in the small variation .01%. What is this term called? Halotype
Like DNA, RNA is long string of nucleotides encased in a large molecule. There are 3 aspects of its structure that make it different from RNA, what are these aspects? select all that apply The sugar in each nucleotide of RNA is ribose, RNA is a single-stranded molecule, RNA's thymine base is replaced by uracil
One of the first products to be produced using recombinant DNA technology was human ______. Insulin
What are the characteristics of a chromosomal study? select all that apply The completed picture of a chromosomal study is called karyotyping, human chromosomes are divided into three types accoriding to the position of the centromere, special laboratory techniques are used to culture body cell and then fixed and stained
What is the person considered if both members of the gene pair are not identical? Heterozygous
An adolescent presents at the clinic with complaints of pedunculate d lesions projecting from his skin on his trunk area. The nurse this is a sign of what? Neurofibromatosis- 1
Which teratogens can cause cleft lip and palate? Rubella
Sometimes an individual that developed from a single zygote is found to have two or more kinds of genetically different cell populations. These individuals are called what? Mosaic
With increasing age there is a greater chance of a woman having been exposed to damaging environmental agents such as drugs, chemicals and radiation. These factors may act on the aging oocyte to cause what in a fetus? Down Syndrom
The embryo is most susceptible to adverse influences during the period from 15-60 days after concentration. This period is referred to as what? The period of organgenesis
Teratogenic substances cause abnormalities during embryonic and fetal development. These substances have been divided into what three classes? Radiation, drugs and chemical substances, infectious agents
Which of these are clinical and pathologic manifestations of TORCH? Microcephaly, hydrocephalus, thrombocytopenia
What are the objectives to prenatal screening? To detect fetal abnormalities and to provide parents with information needed to make an informed choice about having a child with an abnormality
Created by: studying4life on 2011-09-14



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