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Chapter two

social psych

hindsight bias The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred
observational method The technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
interjudge reliability level of agreement btwn2 or mor ppl who independently observe& code a set of data; by showing that 2 or more judges independently come up w the same observations, researchers ensure dat observations arent subjective, distorted impressions of 1 individual
archival analysis A form of the observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated documents, or archives, of a culture
correlational method The technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them is assessed
correlation coefficient A statistical technique that assess how well you can predict one variable from another
surveys Research in which a representative sample of people are asked questions about their attitude or behavior
random selection A way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample
experimental method The method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable
independent variable The variable a researcher changes to varies to se if it has an effect on some other variable
dependent variable The variable a researcher measures to see if it is influenced by the independent variable
random assignment to condition A process ensuring that all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment
probability level (p-level) A number calculated with statistical techniques that tells researchers how likely it is that the results of their experiment occurred by chance and not because of the independent variable or variables
internal validity Making sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable
external validity The extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people
psychological realism The extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life
cover story A description of the purpose of a study given to participants, that is different from its true purpose, used to maintain psychological realism
field experiments Experiments conducted in natural settings rather than in the laboratory
replications Repeating a study, often with different subject populations or in different settings
meta-analyis A statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an independent variable is reliable
basic research Studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do and that are conduct purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity
applied research Studies designed to solve a particular social problems
cross-cultural research Research conducted with members of different cultures, to see whether the psychological processes of interest are present in both cultures or whether they are specific to the culture in which people were raised
natural selection The process by which heritable traits that promote survival in a particular environment are passed along to future generations, because organisms with that traits are more likely to produce offspring
evolutionary psychology The attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time according to the principles f natural selection
informed consent Agreement to participant in an experiment, granted in full awareness of the nature of the experiment, which as been explained in advance
deception Misleading participants about the true propose of a study or the events that will actually transpire
Institutional Review Board (IRB) A group made up of at least one scientist, and one member not affiliated with an institution that reviews all psychological research at that institution and decides whether it meets ethical guidelines
debriefing Explaining to participants, at the end of an experiment, the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired
From dissonance theory, leon Festinger was able to make specific predictions about when and how people would change their attitudes. We call these specific predictions hypotheses
Using archival analyses, scientists describe a culture by examining documents like magazines, diaries, and suicide notes
When INCREASES in the value of one variable are associated with DECREASES in the value of the other variable, then the variable are negatively correlated
As long as the sample is selected randomly, we can assume that the sampled responses: are a reasonable match to responses of the whole population
From studies which indicate that viewing television violence is positively correlated with aggressive behavior in children, we can conclude that the more children view violence on tv the more aggressive their behavior
A " ____experiment" is identical in design to a laboratory experiment except that it is conducted in real-life setting field
How should research be conducted in order to resolve the basic dilemma of the social psychologist? by trying not to do it all in a single experiment but instead doing replications;conduct some experiments that have internal validity and others have external validity
Which of the following is a statistical technique that allows researcher to test how reliable the effects of an IV are over many replications Meta-analysis
Two individuals independently observe the same behavior at a playground, If one reports seven instances of " aggression" and the other records seventeen such instances, then ____will be low interjudge reliability
Height and weight are ____correlated positively
Latane and Darley varied the number of witnesses to an emergency and measured helping behavior. In this experiment____ was the independent variable and ___was the DV. the number of witnesses; helping behavior
When the only aspect that varies across conditions in an experiment is the IV the experiment is sad to have internal validity
Social psychologist are most concerned with generalizability across situations and people
Matt is sitting in a room waiting to take part in a psyc experiment when smoke begins pouring out a vent in the ceiling. Matt doesnt realize it but it actually part of the experiment. He become concerned that there is a fire somewhere. This experiment has psychological realism
The basic dilemma of the social psychologist is that there is usually a tradeoff in experiments between internal and external validity
While ____ research aims to solve a specific problem,___research tries to understand human social behavior purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity applied;basic
Which of the following is among the American Psychological Association's list of guidelines for conducting ethical research in psychology psychologist have a primary obligation, and take reasonable precautions, to protect confidential information
What is the best research method to use to find out if watching violent pornography affects men's attitudes toward women experiment
Why is the experiment considered the method of choice by most social psychologists it is the only method that allows the experimenter to make causal inferences
Which of the following do social psychologist calculate to determine whether or not the results of their study are statistically significant the probability level (p-value)
Dr. Gomez studies different cultures by becoming a part of the cultural group being investigated. Dr. Gomaz most likely is using the _____method. ethnography
The purpose of the cover story is to maintain psychological realism
Which of the following is one of the new frontiers in social psychological research cross-cultural research; the evolutionary approach; social neuroscience
What must follow the research study, especially when deception is used debriefing
Which statement is true regarding theory refinement in social psychology social psychologist continuously refine theories based on their observations of how society is changing
An experiment has external validity when the results of the experiment generalize across situations and people
dr. conducted study to find out how facial affect impressions of ppl. part. had discussing w some1 who either smiled or frowned or was neutral the part. filled out ? to indicate gender, race, and how much they liked the person The IV is___and Dv is___ facial expression;liking
Suppose that a study assessing the relationship between alcohol consumption and students GPA found a neg. correlations btwn the amount of alcohol that students drink and GPA the best conclusion would be if one knows how much alcohol a student drinks, one can predict quite well the student's GPA
Upon reading the results of psychology study in her textbook. Debra thinks "the results of tha study are so obvious. I know that all along. This illustrates which phenomena the hindsight bias
__refers to the process of ensuring each person in an experiment has an =chance of taking part in any condition; __is a way of ensuring that the sample of ppl in a study is representative of a population random assignment; random selection
A fundamental principle of social psychology is that many social problems can be studied_____ experimentation
The key to __is to avoid, as much as possible, imposing one's preconceived notions in order to understand the point of view of the ppl being studied ethnography
Dr. Agger wants to study how images of women and men in magazine advertisements have changed over the last 50 years. which research method should Dr. Agger use? archival analysis
__ is the process by which heritable traits that promote survival in a particular environment are passed along to future generations, because organisms with that trait are more likely to produce offspring natural selection
__are a convenient way of measuring people's attitudes surveys
The large survey conducted by the Literary Digest 1936 asking people which candidate they planned to vote for in the upcoming presidential election, failed to make a correct prediction because they ___ relied on telephone directories and automobile registrations to obtain their sample and during the depression most people could not afford telephone and cars
Correlation does not prove causation
The convention in science, including social psychology, is to consider results significant if the probability level is less than __in 100 5
A goal of many cross-culture studies is to explore the differences between us by examining how culture influences ___ basic social psychological processes
Dr. Reid is conducting a study on childfree couples just to learn more about them. Dr. Reid is conducting ____ research basic
ethnography the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or cultures by observing it from the inside, without imposing any preconceived notions they might have
Created by: aelayan21