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Chpt - 1

Intro to Pharm & History of Drugs

some __ __ replacement therapy drugs are derived from yams estrogen hormone
willow bark is a plant source of aspirin
involves descriptions of how drugs move through the body to be absorbed, distributed, metabolized and excreted pharmacokinetics
source of the pain medication, morphine opium
patients taking certain diuretics are prone to develop a loss of __, vital to cardiac and other body cells proper functioning potassium
pregnant women should not take the drug thalidomide
examples of __ __ are of vitamins, minerals, and herbs dietary supplements
OTC drug has a __ rate of side effects and toxicity low
atropine and scopolamine are derived from belladonna plant
disease was controlled first through pharmaceutical research and development epilepsy
derived from an old remedy using the foxglove plant and is still used today to treat congestive heart failure Digoxin (Lanoxin)
derived from a Chinese remedy for respiratory ailments, __ is found in certain over the counter bronchodilator drugs ephedrine
terms medication and drug can be used interchangeably, but the term, __, can also be used to name illicit chemical substances drug
passage of this, to the FDA act, addressed tougher controls on prescriptions and on new drugs in response to the thalidomide tragedy 1962 Kefauver-Harris amendment
indication that a pharmacy dispensed bottle of pills contains controlled substance would be large C enclosing a Roman numeral
Digoxin and __ are derived from the foxglove plant to treat congestive heart failure digitalis
abbreviation for the federal act of 1996 that requires all drug information be kept secure and information is released only to authorized persons HIPAA
symbol __, derived from Latin word recipe meaning take, indicates a prescription that combines ingredients that form a drug Rx
Mrs. Peace used a tea made of rose hips to provide her with a tasty source of vitamin C
minims, drams, and scruples refer to the __ system of measurement of drugs Apothecary
controlled substances are also known as schedule drugs
federal agency abbreviated __ reviews data that pharmaceutical firms offer proving the safety of a medication that they want to eventually market FDA
the __ is the federal agency that oversees the marketing and dispensing of schedule drugs DEA
1983 the legislation __ was passed to give incentives to pharmaceutical firms to research and market drugs for rare illnesses Orphan Drug Act
1912 the federal government used the US Pharmacopeia or __ to give a listing of drugs that could be prescribed National Formulary
therapeutic use for reserpine hypertension
therapeutic use for dilantin epilepsy
therapeutic use for insulin diabetes mellitus
therapeutic use for colchicine gout
therapeutic use for haldol psychosis
therapeutic use for Tagamet heartburn/peptic ulcer
therapeutic use for Dramamine motion sickness & vomiting
therapeutic use for quinine malaria
therapeutic use for Zivovudine AIDS
response to certain drugs differ between people because of pharmacogenetics
schedule drugs are drugs with potential for abuse
amendment defined prescription drugs Durham-Humphrey
how drugs produce their effects based on time & dose is pharmacodynamics
drugs are used to affect the body therapeutically through pharmacotherapy
using genome technology to discover new drugs is pharmacogenmics
contraceptive drugs belong to the category of prophylaxis
study of the chemical structures of drugs and the action of drugs at the molecular level within cells molecular pharmacology
mechanism of action by which drugs produce their effects (desired or undesired) based on time and dosage pharmacodynamics
drug deliberately administered for its medicinal value as preventive, diagnostic, or therapeutic agent medicine
drug can refer to chemical substances that __ __ have preventative, diagnostic, or therapeutic use do not
defined as the study of drugs and their interactions with living organisms pharmacology
control or improve symptoms, like an antibiotic to kill the bacteria that causes an infection, or hormone replacement drugs for menopause therapeutic use
keep a symptom from happening, like a vaccination against a viral disease, or using a Transderm Scop patch to prevent sea sickness preventative use
often used with x-rays as contrast media; can be given to simulate symptoms for some scan or test, like increased heart rate for stress test diagnostic use
Ancient drugs were prepared according to __ __ involving drying, crushing, & combining variety of plants, substances from animals & minerals standard recipes
1600s, patients advised to __ __ to cure blood in the urine eat soap
1600s, patients advised to put __ in beer to cure intestinal worms mercury
contained the names of 800 different herbal formulations and prescriptions Ebers Papyrus
Egyptians extracted the oil from plants known for __ __ healing properties
King Tutankhamum’s tomb had 350 __ jars of plant oils in it alabaster
emphasized use of herbs and some minerals; herbal preparations were used in conjunction with acupuncture, massage, & exercise; used few animals products Chinese
wrote first Chinese book on herbal medicine; contained 365 different herbal remedies Shen Nong
means recipe, or “take this” Rx
Rx indicates a __, which is a combining of ingredients into a drug prescription
Belladonna means __ __ in Italian beautiful lady
Women used to use belladonna to dilate their pupils
comes from pregnant mares’ urine Premarin
Colchicine is derived from __ __ known as Colchicum autumnale autumn crocus
Aztec Indians of Mexico grew herbs with medicinal properties
maintained royal gardens of medicinal plants Montezuma
furthered the study of medicine with important first steps Greeks & Romans
Alzheimer’s drug galantamine (Razadyne) is derived from daffodil bulbs
drugs dissolved into plant sources gums, oils, bases
composed of dried (desiccated) animal thyroid gland tissue thyroid supplement drugs
common ingredient of topical skin drugs; obtained from the purified fat of sheep's wool lanolin
in the past, only source from ground-up animal pancreas insulin
contains red iron oxide as an inert ingredient quinapril (Accupril)