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the eyes

special senses: the eyes med terminology and pathology of

The lacrimal apparatus also known as the tear apparatus, consists of structures that ptoduce, store, and remove tears
lacrimal glands located above the outer corner of each eye. secrete lacrimal fluid also known as tears
lacrimal canal is made up of two ducts at the inner corner of each eye. collect tears and empty them into the lacrimal sacs. crying is the overflowing of tears from the lacrimal canals
lacrimal sac also know as he tear sac, is an enlargment of the lacrimal duct
lacrimal duct aka nasolacrimal duct the passageway that drains excess tears into the nose
lacrimation the secretion of tears, especiallly in excess
eyeball aka globe a one-inch sphere with only about one-sixth of its surface showing on the outside. the walls are made up of three layers, the sclera, choriod and retina. the interior of the eye is divided into anterior and posterior segments
slera aka white of the eye the tough , fibrous tissue that forms the outer layer of the eye, except for the part covered by the cornea. maintains the shape of the eye and protects the delicate inner layers of tissue.
sler/o white of the eye ( also means hard)
cornea the transparent outer surface of the eye covering the iris and pupil. primary structure foucusing light rays entering the eye
the uveal tract aka uvea the vascular layer of the eye. the iris is in front and the choroid and the ciliary body are behind it
iris pigmented(colored) muscular layer that surrounds the pupil
pupil the black circular opening in the center of the iris that permits light to enter the eye. muscles within the iris control the amount of light that is allowed to enter
lens aka crystalline lens the clear flexible, curved stucture that focuses images on the retina. contained with in a clear capsule located behinde the iris and pupil
choroid aka choroid coat the opaque middle layer of the eyeball, contains many blood vessels and provides the blood supply for the entire eye. opaque means that light cannot pass through this substance
cilliary body located with in the the choroid, is a set of muscels and suspensory ligaments that asust the thickness of the lens to refine the foucus of light rays on the retina. make lens thicker for nearby objects and thinner for distant objects
retina the sensitive innermost layer that lines the posterior segment of the eye.contains rods(black and white receptors) and cones(color receptors) that receive images and convert them into nerve impulses, which are sent to the brain via the optic nerve
macula means spot
lutea means yellow
macula lutea clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina. the area of sharpest central vision
fovea centralis a pit in the middle of the macula. color vision is best in this area because it contains a high concentration of cones and No rods
optic disk aka blind spot a small region in the eye where the nerve endings of the retina enter the optic nerve. it is called the blind spot because it dose not contain any rods or cones to convert images into nerve impulses
second crainial nerve aka optic nerve transmits the nerve impulses from the retina to the brain.
anterior segment of the eye the front one third of the eyeball. divided into anterior and posterior chambers
anterior chamber located behind the cornea and in front of the iris
posterior chamber located behind the iris and in front of the ligaments holding the lens in place
aqueous fluid helps the eye maintain its shape and nourishes the intraocular structures
posterior segment of the eye is filled with vitreous humor (a soft, clear jellylike mass) to aid in maintaining the shape of the eye. the posterior segment is lined w/retina and its realated structures.
accommodation the process whereby the eyes make adustments for seeing objects at various distances. constriction (narrowing), and dilation (widening) of the pupil, movement of the eyes and changes in the shape of the lens.
emmetropia the normal realationship between the refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina
emmetr proper measurement
-opia vision
refraction the ability of the lens to bend light rays to help them focus on the retina
visual acuity the ability to distiguish object details and shape at a distance. (acuity means sharpness)
snellen chart used to measure visual acuity the results from each eye are recorded as two numbers in fraction form.. the first # indicates distance from the chart. the second# indicates the deviation from the norm based on the ability to read progressively smaller line
ophthalmaologist (blank)
opt/o vision
blepharoptosis drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
ectropion theeversion (turning outward) of the edge of an eyelid. usually affects the lower lid, therby exposing the inner srface to irritation and preventing tears from draining
ec- out
trop turn
entropion the inversion (turning inward) of the edge of an eyelid. this usually affects the lower lid, thereby causing the eyelashes to rub against the cornea
-ptosis drooping or sagging
hordeolum (hor-dee-oh-lum) also known as a stye, is a pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland
chalazion (kah-lay-zee-on) also known as an internal stye, is a localized swelling inside the eyelid resulting from obstruction of one of the sebaceous glands
conjunctivitis also known as pink eye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, usually caused by an injury, causes a red area over thewhite of the eye.
subconjunctival hemorrhage a bleeding between the conjunctiva and the sclera. this common condition, usually caused by injury, causes a red area over the white of the eye
xerophthalmia also known as dry eye, is the drying of eye surfaces, including the conjunctiva, that may be due to disease or to a lack in vitamin A in the diet.
scleritis and inflammation of the sclera
keratitis an inflammation of the cornea
kerat cornea
corneal abrasion and injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea
pterygium (teh-rij-ee-um) a noncancerous growth that develops on the cornea and can grow large enough to distort vision
iritis is an inflammation of the iris
synechia (sigh-neck-ee-ah) an adhesion that binds the jiris to an adjacent structure such as the lens or cornea
anisocoria a condition in which the pupils are unequal in size. this my be congenital(present at birth) or caused by a head injury,aneurysm, or pathology of the central nevous system
anis/o unequal
cor pupil
cataract the loss of transparency of the lens.this may be congenital or caused by trauma(injury) or disease; however, the formation of most cataracts is associated with aging
floaters also known as vitreous floaters, are particles of cellular debris that float in the vitreous fluid and cast shadows on the retina. occur normally with aging or in association with vitreous detatchments, rentinal tears, or intraocular inflamminations
nystagmus an involuntary, constant, rhythmic movment of the eyeball. it may be congenital, or caused by neurological injury or drug use
papiledema also known as chocked disk, is swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disk, this swelling is caused by increased intracranial pressure and may be due to a tumor pressing on the optic nerve
pappill nipple like
edema swelling
detached retina also known as retina detachment, the retina is kpulled away from its normal position of being attached to the choroid in the back of the eye. a retinal tear occurs when a hole developes in the retina as it is pulled away from its normal position
uveitis is an inflammation any where in the uveal tract. it may affect the choroid, iris, or cilliary body and has many possible causes, including cataracts, swelling of the retina, and glaucoma
uve uveal tract
diplopia also known as double vision, is the perception of two images of a single object
dipl double
opia vision condition
hemianopia blindness in one half of the visual field
monochromatism also known as color blindness, is the inability to distiguish certain colors
mon/o one
chomat color
nyctalopia night blindness, a condition in which an idividual with normal say time vision has difficulty seeing at night
nyctal night
presbyopia discribes the common changes in the eyes that occur w/ aging
strabismus also known as squint, is a disorder in which the eyes point in differnt directions or are not aligned correctly because the eye muscles are unable to focus together
esotropia croos-eyes,
eso- inward
exotopia walleye, is srabismus characterized by the outward deviation of one eye relative to the other
exo- outward
phacoemulsification the use of ultrasonic vibration to shatter and break up a cataract making removal easier.
pseudo phakia an eye in which the natural lens has been replaced w/ an intraocular lens
pseudo/o false
phak lens
intraocular lens an artificial lens that is surgically implanted to replace the natural lens
laser iridotomy used to treat acute , or closed-angle, glaucoma by creating an opening ith the iris to allow drainage
laser trabeculoplasty used to treat chronic, or open- angle, glaucoma by creating an opening in the trabecular mesh worl to allow fluid to drain properly.
LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis is used to treat vision conditions, such as myopia, that are caused by the shape of the cornea. during this procedure, a flap is opened in the surface of the cornea and then a laser is used to change the shape of a deep corneal layer
photo-refractive keratectomy used to correct refractive errors by shaving away some of the top layer of the cornea.
retin opexy is used to reattach the detached area in a retinal detachment
photocoagulation the use of lasers to treat some forms of macular degeneration by sealing leaking or damaged blood vessels
Created by: sharon fowlkes