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A&P Unit II

Cells & Tissues

Active transport the net movement of a substance across a membrane against a concentration with the use of cellular energy
Adipose fatty/fat
Apical surface the edge of the epithelial tissue that faces the lumen (or the outside world)
Basement membrane a thin layer of extracellular material to which epithelial cells are attached in mucosa surfaces.
Cancer a malignant invasive cellular neoplasm that has the capability of spreading throughout the body or body parts.
Cardiac muscle specialized muscle of the heart
Cartilage white semi opaque connective tissue
Cell the basic biological unit of living organisms containing a nucleus and a variety of organelles enclosed by a limiting membrane.
Chromatin is a mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes
Cilia tiny hair-like projections on cell surfaces that move in a wavelike manner
Concentration gradient a gradual change in the concentration of solutes in a solution as a function of distance through a solution.
Connective tissue a primary tissue functions include support, storage, and protection
Cytoskeleton complex internal structure of cytoplasm consisting of microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments
Diffusion the spreading of particles in a gas or solution with a movement toward uniform distribution of particles, high to low concentration
Edema an abnormal accumulation of fluid in body parts or tissues, causes swelling
Endocrine glands ductless glands that empty their hormonal product directly into the blood
Endocytosis the uptake into a cell of large molecules and particles in which a segment of plasma membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it in.
Epithelial tissue (epithelium) the tissue that forms innermost and outermost surfaces of body structures and forms glands
Exocrine glands glands that have duct through which their secretions are carried to a particular site.
Exocytosis a process of discharging large particles through the plasma membrane
Extracellular matrix a complex mixture of nonliving material that surrounds cells
Facilitated diffusion diffusion in which a substance not soluble by itself in lipids diffuses across a selectively permeable membrane with the help of transporter/carrier proteins.
Fibrocartilage consists of a mixture of white fibrous tissue and cartilaginous tissue in various proportions.
Filtration the passage of a solvent and dissolved substances through a membrane or filter
Glands an organ specialized to secrete or excrete substances for further use in the body or for elimination
Glycoprotein : A molecule that consists of a carbohydrate plus a protein.
Golgi Body (apparatus) Organelle consisting of 4 to 5 flattened sacs, functions in the processing, sorting, packaging, and delivering of proteins
Goblet Cells a goblet shaped, mucus producing, unicellular gland found in certain epithelia of the digestive and respiratory tracts.
Hyaline cartilage glassy, transparent
Hypertonic a term used when comparing two solutions to refer to the solution with the higher osmolarity
Hypotonic a term used when comparing two solutions to refer to the solution with the lower osmolarity
Intercalated disks Regions where adjacent cardiocytes interlock and where gap junctions permit electrical coupling between the cells.
Interstitial fluid the fluid between cells
Intracellular fluid fluid within the cell
Isotonic solutions having a uniform osmolarity that does not result in water movement across cell membranes
Lacunae a small pit or cavity
Ligaments a cord of fibrous tissue that connects bones
Lysosomes organelles that originate from the Golgi apparatus and contain strong digestive enzymes
Microvilli the tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells, increase surface area for absorption
Mitochondria the rod like cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activities
Mitosis the division of the cell nucleus followed by the division of the cytoplasm
Mucus membrane Mucous membranes are tissues that line body cavities or canals such as the throat, nose, mouth, urethra, rectum, and vagina
Nucleolus sperical body within the nucleus, composed of protein, DNA, and RNA, that functions in the synthesis and storage of ribosomal RNA
Nucleus a dense central body in most cells containing the genetic material
Organelles specialized structure in a cell that perform specific metabolic functions
Osmosis the diffusion of a solvent (water) through a membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated one
Passive transport membrane transport process that do not require cellular energy (ATP)
Peristalsis the waves of contraction seen in tube-like organs, propels substances along track
Peroxisomes organelle similar to lysosomes that contains enzymes that use molecular oxygen to oxidize various organic compounds
Phagocytosis the ingestion of solid particles by cells
Plasma membrane membrane that encloses cell contents, regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Regeneration the process of renewal, restoration, and growth
Ribosomes an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that synthesizes proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) a network of channels running through the cytoplasm of a cell that serves in intracellular transportation, storage, synthesis, and packing of molecules
Selective permeability the property of a membrane by which it permits the passage of certain substances but restricts the passage of others
Simple diffusion when a small, non-polar molecule passes through a lipid bilayer
Skeletal muscle tissue an organ specialized for contraction, composed of striated muscle fibers
Smooth ER type of endoplasmic reticulum involved with the production of lipids (fats), building blocks for carbohydrate metabolism, and the detoxification of drugs and poisons
Rough ER type of endoplasmic reticulum, covered in ribosomes, involved mainly with the production and processing of proteins that will be exported, or secreted, from the cell.
Smooth muscle tissue a tissue specialized for contraction, composed of smooth muscle fibers, located on the walls of hollow organs
Sodium-Potassium Pumping an active transport pump located in the plasma membrane that transports sodium ions out of the cell and potassium into the cell with the use of ATP
Stem Cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body.
Striations form of fibers that are combined into parallel fibers
Tendons a white fibrous cord of dense regularly arranged connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
Tissues a group of similar cells and their intracellular substance joined together to perform a specific function
Stratified multiple layers of cells
Simple single layer of cells
Columnar column shaped cells
Cubiodal cube shaped cells
Squamous flat cells
Areolar Packages Organs, Absorbs excess fluid
Created by: weberd