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dvpl psyc

Ch 1 Nature and Theories of Dvpt

Theories of Dvpt ch 1 psychoanalytic, cognitive, bx, ethological, ecological, eclectic
hypothesis specific assumption or prediction that can be tested to determine its accuracy
idea of theories -some theories view human beings as passive, reactive, and ultimately responsive to the impact of environmental stimulation -such theories place great emphasis upon reward and punishment as factors in shaping devpt
contrasting theories -human is inherently active -instead of being shaped by envir, indiv is resp for shaping or constructing envir -theories differ in degree to which they see dvpt or series of discontinuous and descrete series of changes
psychoanalytic theories -bx is primarily unconscious-beyond awareness -bx heavily colored by emotion, feelings -bx surface characteristiv w/symbolic meaning -early experiences w/parents extensively shape bx
behavior is what we see, but cause is under the surface
Freud's 3 structures of personality -Id -Ego -Superego
Id -totally unconscious: has no contact w/reality -consists of instincts: our reservoir of psychic energy -e.g. baby wants what they want now and dsnt care about anything else -has no morality
Ego -emerges out of babies early experiences: manage demands in diff way like chngng feeding sched from 2am to 9pm -deals w/demands of reality -called "executive branch" of personality:uses reasoning to make decisions -has no morality -
superego -begin to dvlp someones values, like children -moral branch of personality -takes into accout right and wrong -out conscience -set of moral values -takes into account whether something is right or wrong
development pattern of chng that begins at conception and continues - life cycle -systematic changes and continuities which occur b/w conception and death
3 realms of dvpt physical, cognitive, psychosocial
physical dvpt 1. body and organs during childhood 2. dramatic and often disturbing chngs assoc w/puberty 3. appearance of aging 4. gains and losses in motor abilities that occur over time
cognitive dvpt 1. chngs in mental processes in a)perception b)language use c)learning d)thot
psychosocial dvpt 1. chng in personal and interpersonal phenomena such as a)motives and emotions b)personality traits c)interpersonal skills and relationships d)roles played within family and lrgr society
dvpl chngs result from? biological, cognitive, socioemotional processes
life span dvpt focuses on growth, continuities, changing perspectives, diversity
historical perspective original sin-children were born into world bad Tabula Rasa-children like "blank table" and acquire characteristics - experience innate goodness-children inherently good
traditional vs lifespan approach -extensive chng from birth to adolescence, little chng in adulthood, and decline in late old age -dvpl chng during adult/childhood
characteristics of lifespan perspective dvpt is: lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, contextual, involves growth, maintenance, and regulation
multidimensional dvpt -it's biological, cognitive, and socioemotional
multidirectional dvpt -incr/decr in growth
plastic dvpt degree in which characteristice chng or remain stable
multidisciplinary dvpt psgchologist, sociologist, anthropologists, neuroscientists, medical researchers
contextual dvpt normative age and history graded influences and life events
nature vs nurture dvpt -biological inheritance -environmental experiences
continuity and discontinuity extent dvpt involves gradual, cumulative (continuity) chng or distinct stages (discontinuity)
stability and change degree we become older renditions of our early experience or we cvp into someone diff from who we were at an early pnt in dvpt
psychosexual dvpt each of 5 stages focuseso on body experiencing some type of pleasure -how conflicts b/w sources of pleasure are resolved determines adult personality
oral stage -mouth b/c food comes her -conflict-weaning child -chewing, sucking, biting birth-1.5
anal stage anus -problem-potty training -1.5-3
phallic stage genitals, self manipulation -realization they have something there -should distract them -oetipus complex-boy likes mom -electra-girl likes daddy -3-6
latency stage -child represses sexual interest and dvps social and intellectual skills -6-[puberty)
genital stage -sexual reawakening: sexual pleasure becomes someone outside of family -puberty on
what can individuals dvp when conflict is not resolved? fixation-when the individual remains locked in an earlier developmental stage because needs are under- or over-gratified.
Erik Erikson 1902-94 -realized Freud's contribution but dvpd psychosocial theory
psychosocial dvpt theory -primary motivation for human bx is social and reflects desire to affiliate w/other people Eight stages Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced
The Psychosocial Theory of Development (cont’d)' Crises are not catastrophes but rather turning points of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential. The more an individual resolves the crises successfully, the healthier development will be.'
Trust vs. Mistrust (First Year)' A sense of trust requires a feeling of physical comfort and a minimal amount of fear and apprehension about the future. Trust in infancy sets the stage for a lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place. '
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Second Year) After gaining trust in caregivers, infants begin to discover their bx is their own. start to assert sense of independence or autonomy realize their will. If restrained too much or punished too harshly,dvp a sense of shame and doubt.
Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschool Years)' As preschoolers, encounter widening socl wrld,challenged more than when were infants,& active, purposeful bx is needed to cope w/challenges. asked to assume resp4 bodies, bx, toys,& pets. Guilt may arise if child is irresponsible nd made to feel anxiou
industry vs. inferiority (elementary age) -middle and late children directenergy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills -danger during this time is dvpt of sense of inferiority-feeling incompetent and unproductive
-what does erikson believes about industry vs inferiority
identity vs identity -adolescence -indiv faced w/finding out who they r, what they're all about, & where going in life -confronted w/many new roles & adult statuses -if adolescent explores roles in healthy manner & arrives at positive path in life, + identity will b achiev
in identity vs identity if parent pushes identity on adolescent what happens don't beocme adequately able to explore many roles and confusion reigns
intimacy vs isolation -early adulthood -face dvpt task of forming intimate relationships w/others
intimacy finding oneself yet losing oneself in another
how is intimacy achieved? thru formation of healthy friendships and in intimate relationship w/another individual
how does isolation result? by not finding intimacy among others
generativity vs. stagnation chief concern -middle adulthood -chief concern is to assist the younger generation in devpg and leading useful lives (generativity) -feeling of having done nothing to help next generation is stagnation
integrity vs despair involves what and how is this achieved -late adulthood -reflecting on past and either piercing together a + review or concluding that life hasn't been well spent -thru reflecting on a past deemed worthwhile
what leads to despair? -if oldr adlt resolved mny of earlier stages negatively, looking back will lead to doubt or gloom
contributions of psychoanalytic theories -early exp play imprtnt part in dvpt -fam relat r central aspect of dvt -personality understood by examinning dvpt -mind not all conscious; uncon needs to be considered -chngs occur in adulthood and childhood
criticisms of psychoanalytic theories -difficult to test -much of data used to support theses theories come from indiv reconstr of past, often distant past, and unknkown accuracy -sexual underpinning of dvpt are given too much importance (esp freud)
other criticisms of psychoanalytic theories -unconscious mind is given too much credit for influencing dvpt -psychoanalytic theories present image of humans that is too negative -theories are culture and gender biased
cognitive theories -piaget's cognitive dvpt theory -vygotsky's sociocultural cognitive theiry -info processing approach
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) -SWISS PSYCHOLOGIST -OBSERVED HIS OWN CHILDREN TO DVP THEORY -chngd thinking about thildren's mind dvpt
Piaget's Cognitive dvpt theory -children actively construct their understanding of the world -children progress thru 4 stages of cognitive dvpt -2 processes underlie dvpt:assimilation and accommodation
assimilation -incorporating new info into their existing knowledge
accommodation adjusting one's existing knowledge to new info
Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive dvpt k
sensorimotor stage -infants construct an understanding of world by coordinating sensory experiences w/physical, motor actions -at beginning, newborns are limited to reflexive patterns -by end, 2 yr olds are beginning to operate w/primitive symbols
preoperation stage -children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings
operations -internalized mental actions taht allow children to do mentally what they previously did physically
concrete operational stage -children can perform mental operations -logical reasoning replaces intuitive thot, as long as reasoning can be applied to concrete examples -algebra is too abstract for this stage
formal operational stage -individuals move beyond concrete experiences and think in abstact, more logical terms -problem solving is more systematic and involves hypotheses -adolescents dvp images of ideal circumstances
Lev Vygotsky sociocultural cognitive theory 1896-1934 -shares Piaget's view that children actively construct their knowledge -emphasizes dvpl analysis, the role of language, adn social relations -like Piaget, Vygotsky's ideas were not introduced in America until 1960s
Vygotsky's 3 basic claims about children's dvpt -their cognitive skills can be understood only when they are dvpty analyzed and interpreted -cogn skills are mediated by words, lang, and forms of discourse -cogn skills have their origins in socl relats and are embedded in sociocultural backdrop
info processing approach -emphasizes taht indivs manipulate, monito, and strategize about info -central are the processes of memory and thinking -indivs dvp gradually incrg capacity for processinginfo -this enables acquisition of increasingly complex knowledge and skills
info processing theory picture k
contributions of cognitive theories -present + view of dvpt, emphasizing indiv's conscious thiking -emphasize indiv's active constr of understancing -Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories underscore the import of examining dvptl chngs n childrens thinking
cogn theories cont'd -info processing approach offers detailed description of cogn processesers
criticisms of cogn theories -skepticism about pureness of Piaget's stages lack adequate atten to indiv variations -info processing lacks adequate description of dvt'l chngs in cogn -psychoanalytic theoriests argue that cogn theories dont giv enuf credit to unconscious thot
bx and socl cogn theories -scientifically we can only study what can be directly observed and measured -dvpt is observable bx taht can be learned thru exp w/envir
Ivan Pavlov and BF skinner l
classical condintioning early 1900s russian physiologist ivan pavlov discovered phenomenon in which neutral stimulus acquires ability to produce bxl response originally produced by another stimulus
operant conditioning -bf skinner deomonstrated that consequences of bx produce chngs in probability of bx occurring again -consequences can be either rewards (incr the likelihood of bx recurrence) or punishment (decr this chance) -e.g.
Albert Bandura -social cogn theory
socl cognitive theory -Albert Bandura and walter mischel believe taht cogn processes are import mediators of envir bx connections -learning occurs thru observing what others do, as indiv cogn represent what they see and adopt the bx themselves
contributions of bx and socl cogn thwories -emphasize import of scientific research -focus on envir determinants of bx -underscore impor of observational learning (bandura)
criticisms of bx and socl cogn theories -too little emphasis on cogn (pavlov, skinner) -too much emphaiss on envir determinants -lack atten to dvpl chngs -too mechanical, lack consideration to spontaneity and craetivity of humans
ethological theory -bx is strongly infl by biology, tied to evolution, characterized by critical prds -european zoologis konrad lorenz (1903-89) identified imprinting -hohn bowlby theorizes about attachment
imprinting rapid, innate learning within limited critical prd of time that involves attachment to first moving object seen
critical prd fixed time prd very early in dvpt during which certain bxs optimally emergef
attachment -based on principles of othological theory -attach to caregiver over 1st yr of life has import consequences: --+ and secure attachment results in + dvpt ---and insecure attachment results in problematic dvpt
contributions of ethological theory -incr focus on biol and evolutionary basis of dvpt -uses careful observations in naturalistic settings -emphasizes critical prds of dvpt
criticisms of thological theory -critical and sensitive perds may be too rigid -places too strong an emphasis on biol foundsations -gives inadequate atten to cogn -has been better at generating research w/animals than w/humans
ecological theory -dvpd by Urie Bronfenbrenner -5 envir systems: 1. microsystem 2. mesosystem 3. exosystem 4. macrosystem 5. chronosystem
contributions of ecological theory -provides systematic examination of macro and micro dimensions of envir systems -gives atten to connectoins b/w encir settings -gives consideration to sociohistorical infl on dvpt
criticisms of ecological theory -even w/ added discussion of biol infl in recent yrs, there is still too little atten to biol foundations of dvpt -gives inadequate atten to cogn processes
eclectic theorectical orientation -doesnt follow any one theoretical approach -selects and uses best from each theory -acknowledges that no one theory is complete and that each has made important contributions to understanding dvpt -orientation is presented and maintained thru the text
ch 2
genetic foundations -each of us carries a genetic code that we inherited from our parents -this code is located within every cell in our bodies -code is mechanism for transmitting characteristics from one generation to next
DNA, genes, chromosomes
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is a comples molecule, shaped like couble helix, that contains genetic info
genes units of hereditary info-short segments composed of DNA-that act as a blueprint for cells to reproduce themselves and manufacture the proteins taht maintain life
chromosomes threadlike structures comprised of thousands of genes, taht come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair coming from each parent
mitosis process of cell division by which each chromosome in the cells nucleus duplicates itself
meiosis cells in reproductive organs divide into gametes *sperm in males, eggs in fm), which have half the genetic material of parent cell
difference b/w mitosis an meiosis mitosis-1 cell grwth and repair, # of chromosomes present remains same (copy themselves), 2 daughter colonies meiosis-sex reprod, chromo are halved, 4 daughter cells produced
process of human reprod -begins when fm gamete (ovum) is fertilized by male gamete (sperm) -produces zygot -in zygote, 2 sets of unprd chromo combine to form one set of paired chromosomes
zygote single cell formed thru fertilization
genetic principles -dominant recesssive genes principle -sex linked genes
dominant recessive genes principle -if one gene of pr is dominant and one is recessive, the dominant gene exerts its effect, overriding the potential infl of other,recessive gene -recessive gene exerts its infl only if 2 genes of pr are both recessive
sex linked genes 2 of 46 chromosomes human beings normally carry are sex chromosomes. ordinarily fm have 2 x chromosomes and males have an X and Y
genotypes individual's genetic heritage, the actual genetic material
phenotype way an individual's genotype is expressed in observed and measurable -for each genotype, range of phenotypes can be expressedcharacteristics
physical traits of phenotype height, weight, eye color
psych charact of phenotype intelligence, creativity, personality
chromosome and geneliked abn chromo-down syndrome, klinefelter, fragile X, Turner, XYY syndrome Gene linked abn-gene linked abn: phenylketonuria, sickle cell anemia
down syndrome cause and characteristics -presence of extra chromosome -round face, flattened skull, extra fold of skin over eyelides, protrudingtongue, short limbs, retardation of motor and mental abilities -women yngr than 18 and older than 38 are more likely to have down syndrom baabies
klinefelter syndrome and characteristics -sex linked chromo abn -males have extra X chromo making them XXY instead of XY -undvpd testes, enlrgd breasts, become quite tall
turner syndrome and char -sex lnkd chrom abn -fm are missing an X chr making them XO instead of XX -shortness of stature, webbed neck, possible mental retardation, possible sexual underdvpt
XYY syndrome -sex chr lnkd abn -male has extra Y chr -early belief surrounding the syndrome was tat the extra Y chr contributed to male aggression and violence -researchers have since found taht CYY males are no more likely to commit crimes than are XY males
Fragile X syndrome and characteristics -sex liked chromosome abn -X chromosome bcomes constricted and often breakes -mental defiecience (varied in form from mental retardation to short attention span) -occurs more frequently in males
Phenylketonuria -gene linked abn -indiv cannot properly metabolize an amino acid -currently easily detected -treated by diet to prevent an excess accumulation of phenylalanine -if left untreated it can result in mental retardation adn hyperactivity
sickle cell anemia -gene linked abn -occurs mst often in african americans -affects shape of red blood cells, hindering their ability to carry o2 to bodys cells -results in anemia and early death of indiv
other genetic abnormalities -cystic fibrosis -diabetes -hemophilia -huntington disease -Phenylketonuria PKU -sickle cell anemia -spina bifida -tay-sachs disease
reproduction challenges and choices prenatal diagnostic tests, infertility, adoption
prenatal diagnostic tests -amniocentesis -ultrasound sonography -chorionic villi sampling -maternal blood test
amniocentesis -prenatal medical procedure in which sampl of amniotic fluid is withdran by syringe and tested to discover if fetus is suffering metabolic disorders -perfomed b/w 12th and 16th weeks of preg -exists smll risk of miscarriage (1 in 200-300)
ultrasound sonography -prenatal medical procedure in which high frequency sound waves are directed into pregnat woman's abdomen -echo from sounds is transformed into visual representation of fetus's inner structures -able to detect such disorders microencephaly
chorionic Villi sampling -prenatal medical procedure in which small sample of placenta is removed -performed b/w 8th and 11th wks of preg -provides info about presence of birth defects -has slightly higher risk of miscarriage than amniocentesis
Maternal blood test -called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) -prenatal diagnostic technique used to asses blood alphaprotein lvl, which is assoc w/neural tube defects -administered b/w 14th and 20th wks of preg
Created by: Jamie D Cox Jamie D Cox on 2011-08-24

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