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MMT Ch 15

Medical Terminology Endocrine System WGU

endocrine any of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
hormones chemical "messengers" of the endocrine system that are released into the blood
pituitary of or relating to the pituitary gland
hypophysis pituitary gland
adenohypophysis the anterior lobe of the pituitary body
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex regulates the production of cortisol(steriod hormone) from anterior pituitary
ICSH Interstitia cell stimulating hormone
Increases testosterone production
mature sperm for several days
GH Secreted directly by anterior pituitary; Growth Hormone, aka Somatotrophin; promotes bone and muscle growth
hGH (Human growth hormone) also known as somatotrophic hormone is responsible for the growth of long bones, muscles and viscera.
PRL prolactin, stimulates milk production by mammory glands. Stimulated by PRH inhibited by PIH
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone; stimulates thyroid gland to synthesize and release thyroid hormones, including thyroxin (hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells)
STH Somatotrophin (growth hormone)
neurohypophysis the posterior lobe of the pituitary body
ADH anti-diuretic hormone blood, secreted when concentration of ions is high, cause kidneys to retain water
OT oxytocin
thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth
parathyroids four tiny glands embedded in the thyroid; they secrete parathormone
PTH parathyroid hormone
adrenal glands a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
suprarenals Adrenal Glands located above each kidney.
adrenal cortex Part of the adrenal gland that produces three mayor groups of steroid hormones called corticosteroids.
adrenal medulla inner part of adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
glucocorticoids helps body resist long-term stressors; increases blood glucose levels; controls effects of inflammation from edema
mineralcorticoids a class of steroid hormones characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water balance.
estrogen a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
androgen male sex hormone that is produced in the testes and responsible for typical male sexual characteristics
catecholamines The neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are active in both the brain and the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. These three molecules have certain structural similarities and are part of a larger class of neurotransmitte
dopamine neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
epinephrine a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)
norepinephrine a catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses
pancreas located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
exocrine a gland that secretes externally through a duct
endocrine any of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
islets of Langerhans cell clusters in the pancreas that form the endocrine part of that organ
insulin Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen o
ketones fragments formed by the tissues during incomplete use of fat for energy, and released into the blood
thymus a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity
thymosin Produced by the thymus gland during childhood, this hormone stimulates T-lymphocyte development and differentiation.
anorexia eating disorder brought about by an extreme pursuit of thinness characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss
exophthalmia abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
glucosuria the presence of abnormally high levels of glucose in the urine
goiter abnormally enlarged thyroid gland
hirsutism abnormal hairiness, particularly in women
hypocalcemia abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
hypoglycemia abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
hypokalemia abnormally low level of potassium in the circulating blood leading to weakness and heart abnormalities
hyponatremia abnormally low level of sodium in the blood
ketoacidosis presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal utilization of carbohydrates as seen in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation
ketonuria excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine as in diabetes mellitus or starvation
paresthesia abnormal skin sensations (as tingling or tickling or itching or burning) usually associated with peripheral nerve damage
polydipsia excessive thirst (as in cases of diabetes or kidney dysfunction)
polyphagia excessive hunger
polyuria excessive urination
tetany tension; prolonged, continuous muscle contraction
acromegaly disease characterized by enlarged features, especially the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
diabetes insipidus a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys)
gigantism excessive largeness of stature
GHD somatropin deficiency in childhood
panhypopituitarism Total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal activity
SIADH syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
hyperthyroidism condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor
hypothyroidism condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
hyperparathyroidism excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood
hypoparathyroidism inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
Addison disease chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex; symptoms may include weakness, darkening of skin, loss of appetitie, depression, and other emotional problems
Cushing disease Cushing's syndrome: condition caused by an excess of adrenocortical hormone from ALL causes Cushing's disease: caused by PITUITARY hypersecretion of ACTH
DM diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
gestational diabetes a disorder in which women who are not diabetic before pregnancy develop diabetes during the pregnancy
hyperinsulinism condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
prediabetes diagnosed when fasting glucose levels are higher than normal (100 mg/dl) but lower than 126 mg/dl; people with prediabetes usually develop type II diabetes within 10 years; treat with weight loss and exercise to prevent onset of type II diabetes
pheochromocytoma a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine
prolactinoma a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin
thymoma Tumor of the thymus.
islet cell carcinoma A tumor of the islands of Langerhans; such tumors may result in hyperinsulinism (and hypoglycemia)
malignant thymoma rare cancer of the thymus gland
thyroid carcinoma Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland
A1c A test that measures how much glucose has been sticking during the past 3-4 months to hemoglobin, the substance in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells of the body. The A1C test is important in diabetes as a long-term measure of control ov
FPG Fasting Plasma Glucose
glucometer a device used to measure levels of glucose in the blood
OGTT oral glucose tolerance test
RIA radioimmunoassay - measures hormone levels in plasma
TFT thyroid function test
total calcium Test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
UA urinalysis
urine glucose positive in DM and steroid excess
urine ketones indicated diabetes mellitus or hyperthyroidism
RAIU radioactive iodine test that measures the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland
adrenalectomy excision of (one or both) adrenal glands
hypophysectomy surgical removal of the pituitary gland
pancreatectomy surgical removal of part or all of the pancreas
parathyroidectomy excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism
thyroidectomy surgical removal of the thyroid gland
Ca Calcium
DI Diabetes Insipidus
FBS fasting blood sugar
K Potassium
Na Sodium
PGH pituitary growth hormone
PRL prolactin
T3 triiodothyronine
T4 thyroxine
Created by: DRIOS2