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LOM ch 10

Nervous system

acetylcholine neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
afferent nerve Carries messages TOWARD the brain and spinal cord(sensory nerve).
akinetic without movement
analgesia Condition of no sensation of pain
anencephaly Condition of no brain (congenital anomaly)
anesthesia condition of no nervous sensation
aphasia without speach
apraxia condition of inability to speak
arachnoid membrane middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord.
astrocyte Type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries.
ataxia No muscular coordination
autonomic nervous system Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
blood-brain barrier Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out
bradykinesia Slowness of movement
brainstem Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; including the pons and medulla oblongata
cauda equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
causalgia Burning sensation of bain (in the skin); ususally following injury to sensory fibers of a peripheral nerve
cell body Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
central nervous system Brain and spinal cord
cephalgia Headache (head pain)
cerebellar Pertaining to the cerebellum
cerebellopontine pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons
cerebellum Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
cerebral cortex Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
cerebrospinal fluid Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory
coma profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused
comatose in a state of coma
crainial nerves Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)
dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to recieve the nervous impulse
dura mater Thik, outermost layer of teh meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord. Latin for "hard mother"
dyslexia Disorder of reading, writing, or learning
dyskinesia Involuntary, spasmodic movement
efferent nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve
encephalitis Inflamation of the brain
ependymal cell Gliel cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
epidural hematoma Collection of blood above the dura mater
ganglion; (plural: ganglia) Collection of nerve bodies in the periferal nervous system
glial cell Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
glioblastoma Tumor (malignant) of glial cells in the brain
gyrus; gyri Sheet of nerve cells that producs a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
hemiparesis Slight paralysis is either the right or left half of the body
hemiplegia Paralysis in half of the body
hypalgesia Diminished sesation to pain
hyperesthesia Excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
hyperkinesis Condition of excessive movement
hypothalamus Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
intrathecal injection Placement of substances (medication) into the subarachnoid space
leptomeningeal Pertaining tot eh pia mater and arachnoid membranes of the menenges
medulla oblongata Part of teh brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here
meningeal Pertaining to the meninges
meninges Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
meningioma Tumor of the meninges
microglial cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
motor nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve
myelin sheath Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons
myelogram Record (x-ray) of the spinal cord
myelomeningocele Hernia of the spinal cord and meninges; associated with spinal bifida
myoneural Pertaining to muscle and nerve
narcolepsy Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of sleep (seizures of sleep)
nerve Microscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
neuralgia Nerve pain
neurasthenia Condition of lack of nerve strength; nervous exhaustion and weakness
neuroglia Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses
neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses throught the body
neuropathy Disease of the nerve
neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin
oligodendroglial cell Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodenrocyte
paraplegia Paralysis in the lower portion of the body
parasympathetic nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of teh gastrointestinal tract
parenchyma Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. The parenchyma of the nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and neurons. Parenchymal cells of the liver are hepatocytes, tissue of the kidney includes the nephrons, where urine is formed
paresis partial paralysis or weakness of muscle
paresthesia An abnormal sensation such as numbness, tingling, or pricking
periferal nervous system Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves
pia mater Thin, delicate inner membrane of teh menenges
plexus (plural: plexuses) large, interlacing network of nerves. Examples are lumbosacral, cervical, and brachial plexus.
poliomyelitis Inflamation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
polyneuritis Inflamation of many nerves, causing paralysis, pain, and wasting of muscles
pons Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the restof the midbrain
quadriplegia Paralysis of all four limbs of the body
radiculitis Inflamation of nerve roots
radiculopathy Disease of the spinal nerve root
receptor Organ that recieves a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. The skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors
sciatic nerve Nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg and foot
sensory nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve
spinal nerves Thirty- one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
stimulus (plural: Stimuli) Agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
stroma Connective and supporting tissue of an organ.
subderal hematoma Collection of blood under the dura mater
sulcus; (plural; sulci) depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
sympathetic nerves Autonmic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
synapse Space through which a nervous impuls travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells
syncopal Pertaining to syncope
syncope fainting
thalamic Pertaining to the thalamus
thalamus Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebum; incoming sensory messages are relayed thru the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum
trigeminal neuralgia flashes of pain radiating along the course of the trigeminal nerve
vagal Pertaining to the vagus (10th crainial) nerve
vagus nerve Tenth Cranial nerve; its branches reach the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach
ventricles of the brain Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
Sciatica pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve
encephalopathy Any disease of the brain
Created by: mscardenas