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Pathology chapter 6

Nervous system helps maintain homeostasis, responsible for: mental processes, behaviors, emotional reponses
3 Neuron structures Dendrites (branches) brings info in for sensory, afferent; cell body(soma)has nucleus, axon (singular process)take info away from the cell motor, efferent
Synapse means together or join; 3 targets (effectors)Figure 6-2 page 160 1. neuron 2. muscle 3. gland
Functions of Nervous system sensory function: receptors detect stimuli and respond by sending information to the CNS; intergration function: CNS integrates this information and decides on a response; motor function: motor neurons carry impulses from the CNS to the muslces and glands
Central nervous sytem Incased in bone and protected by meninges and cerebral fluid, has brain (in skull) and spinal cord (in vertebral column)
Spinal cord has how many pairs of spinal nerves (page 161 figure 6-4) 31 pairs of spinal nerves
cervical has how many bones and how many nerves 7 bones and 8 nerves
Brain structure (page 161 figure 6-5) brainstem, cerebellus, diencephalon, cerebrum
brainstem midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Diencephalon thalamus, pineal body, hypothalamus
Cerebrum cortex and corpus callosum
Peripheral nervous system (2 parts) Somatic nervous system (volutary); automonic nervous system (involuntary) divided into parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
parasympathetic (page 163 figure 6-7) rest and digest
sympathetic (page 163 figure 6-7) fight or flight
CNS disorders cerebral palsy, spina bifida, seizure disorders, spinal cord injury,
Cerebral palsy group of motor disorders; damage to cerebrum from inadequate or reduced blood flow; lighter pressure; avoid joint mobilizations or administer carefully; instruct parents to massage in affected person is a child.
2 types of cerebral palsy lack of cordnation either spastic or flaccid
spina bifida group of neural tube defects; failure of posterior spinous processes to close (usually lumbar spine); local contraindication; avoid joint mobilizations and compressions or admiister carefully; instruct parents to massage if affected person is a child
Three types of spina bifida occulta, meningocele, myelomeningocele
Seizure disorders explosive episode of uncontrolled and excessive electrical activity in the brain; 2 types partial: limited to single area of brain and Generalized: more diffuse involvement. postpone massage if condition is untreated; avoid known triggers
spinal cord injury damage to the vertebrae and neural tissues causing loss of movement and loss of sensation distal to area of insult--paraplegia:paralysis of the lower extrmities and trunk--quardriplegia:paralysis of the trunk and all extremities
ADHD attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder array of behaviors associtaed with inattentiveness, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or combination of these; reduce treatment time; instruct parents to massage if affected person is a child
Autism syndrome of social withdrawal and obsessive behavior; five types ranging from mild and highly functional to severe. Reduce treatment time, use firm gliding and compressive strokes
Infectious diseases meningitis, encephalitis, poliomyelitis and postpolio syndrome
meningitis inflammation of the meninges most often the result of a viral or bacterial infection, massage is contraindicated until client completely recovers
encephalitis inflammation of the brain, fever, head ache and stiff
poliomyelitis highly contagious viral infection that is now rare, massage contraindicated until client completely recovers
postpolio syndrom collection of symptoms seen in individuals who have previously recovered from polio or who were misdiagnosed, but now considered to have been infected, light massage cautiously apply stretches
Neurodegenerative disease dementia, alzheimer disease, huntington disease, Parkinson disease (paralysis agitans); multiple sclerosis
Dementia group of disorders characterized by a decline of mental facilities and personalyity changes that interfere with work, social activities; tow most common types are Alzheimer and vascular, gentle massage
alzheimer disease progressive degenerative disease of the brain, gentle massage shorter duration
huntington disease inherited disorder characterized by motor disturbances, mental deterioration, and abnormal behavior; light massage of shorter duration; cautiously apply passive stretches
parkinson disease disorder producting abnormal movements marked by destruction of dopamine producing neurons in the brain, gentle massage and shorter duration.
multiple sclerosis (autoimmune) progressive neural demyelination, massage contraindicated during flare-ups; otherwise gentle massage of shorter duration (parestesia altered sensation)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou gehrig's disease) degeneration of motor neurons leading to secondary demyelination; this causes generalized paralysis leaving the affected person immoblie, gentle massage of shorter duration
vascular disorders cerebrovascular accident (stroke), transient ischemic attack, migrain headache
Trasient Ischemic attack brief episode of impaired brain functioning caused by temporary reduction of blood flow; lasts a few seconds to possbily hours and is characterized by slurred speech
Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) sudden disruption in cerebral blood flow by occluded or ruptured blood vessel; obtain medical clearance during rehab stage
Stroke Warnings sudden weakness, numbness, or tingling in face, arm or leg; temporaray loss of speech, failure to comprehend; sudden loss of vision; sudden severe headache; unusual dizziness or loss of balance
migrain headache (vascular headache) severe, recurrent headaches accompanied by symptoms such as visual disturbances and nausea; often provoked by a trigger factor; massage is contraindicated during attack
Peripheral never disorders Trigeminal neuralgia, bell palsy, myasthenia gravis, guillain-Barre Syndrome,
Trigeminal neuralgia (Tic douloureux)3 branches Ophthalmic branch, maxillary branch, mandibular branch condition characterized by excruciating episodic pain in areas supplied by the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve); avoid prone position and avoid massage to the face and scalp.
Bell's Palsy (#7 nerve) condition of facial nerve causing muscle weakness or paralysis on one side of face; use light gliding strokes directed upward, and kneading, percussion, and vibration on facial muscles.
Myasthenia Gravis (muslce, weakness) disorder caused by loss of acetylcholine receptors within the neuromuscular junction resulting in progressive weakness and paralysis; gentle massage of shorter duration
Acetylcholine; dopamine makes the muscles more more;makes muscles go down.
Guillan-Barre Syndrome (peripheral nerves) neurologic inflammatory disease of the peripheral nerves; typically begins as leg weakness and ascends to trunk and arms; Massage is contraindiated
Peripheral Neuropathy (diabetics) inflammation or degeneration of PNS causing symptoms of impaired sensations and movement difficulties; reduced pressure while avoiding hypersensitive areas; if neuropathy in lower extermities, avoid bolster use.
Paresthesia abnormal feelings
degenerative disc disease deterioration of the intervertebral discs resulting from teh aging process or accident; medical clearance required, once obtained, reduce pressure over affected areas and avoid spinal mobilizations
Herniated disc, bulging disc and radiculopathies disc problems; symptons include sever, sharp pain that may worsen with movement; limited ROM; tenderness; paresthesias; postpone massage if pain is severe, reduce pressure over affected areas
Herniated disc protrusion of nucleus pulposus through tear in annulus fibrosus
bulging disc similar to herniated disc but nucleus pulposus contained within annular wall
radiculopathy pain radiating along the path of a compressed nerve.
Sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve, reduce pressure in areas of paresthesias, avoid use of bolsters on lower extremities
Carpal tunnel syndrome (media nerve) compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel; local contraindication if area is inflamed. Compression of the media nerve
Thoracic outlet syndrom (TOS) nerves are called Brachial plexus injury compression or entrapment of neurovascular bundle; avoid vigorous massage if swollen or inflamed; otherwise, massage is helpful
Created by: carladanette