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chapter-15-skin

pivot-point skin

QuestionAnswer
dermatology The study of the skin its structure,functions,diseases and treatment
The skin is the largest organ of the body covers the entire body and protects it from invasion from outside particles
Functions of the skin sensation,secretion,absorption,regulation,protection,and excretion
The skin has three main layers Epidermis,Dermis,and Subcutaneous
Epidermis which is the outermost layer of the skin referred to as scarf skin,or cuticle
Dermis which is the underlying,or inner, layer of the skin, also called derma, corium, cutis or true skin
Subcutaneous also called subcutis or subdermis, which is located below the dermis layer and composed primarily of fatty(adipose)tissue fatty layer below the dermis
The Epidermis is composed of five layers of cells with differing characteristics and contains no blood vessels
Stratum Germinativum At the lowest level of the epidermis,it begins with stratum basale,or basal cell layer
Mitosis or cell division begin in the stratum germinativum where skin cell growth occurs
Keratinization the chemical conversion of living cells into dead protein cells, begins newly produced cells pushed toward the surface
melanocytes melanin-producing cells are located in the basal layer of the epidermis
melanin or melanocytes is distributed throughout all epidermal cells and forms an effective barrier from the penetration of ultraviolet rays to the deeper layers of the skin`
stratum spinosum is the next layer up and is sometimes considered to be part of the stratum germinativum
stratum granulosum cells become more regularly shaped and look like many tiny granules (almost dead cells)are on their way to the surface of the skin to replace cells that are shed from the stratum corneum
stratum lucidum on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet only, where there are no hair follicles
stratum corneum the uppermost layer sometimes called the horny layer is the toughest layer composed of keratin protein cells that are continually shed and continually replaced by new cells from below
acid mantle a mixture of oil secreted by sebaceous oil glands and water secreted by sweat glands. The pH of the acid mantle averages 4.5.to 5.5.
connective tissues are composed of a semifluid substance containing collage protein and elastin fibers,both of which are found in the dermis layer
sudoriferous glands (soo-dohr-IF-er-us)also called eccrine glands sweat glands that are also found in the dermis layer,makes up the acid mantle. They are controlled by the nervous system
sebaceous (sih_BAY-shus)glands produce sebum oil .make up the acid mantle.
Found in the dermis are the suderiferous(sweat)glands,sebaceous(oil)glands,sensory nerve endings and receptors,blood vessels and a major portion of the each hair follicle
sweat glands(three major functions) control and regulation of body temperatures,excretion of waste products,helping maintain the acidic ph factor of the skin
sweat and oil glands are called duct glands
sebum is a complex secretion containing a high percentage of fatty,oily substances.sebum helps to keep the skin from frying or chapping
papillary canal the sebum or oil is secreted onto the surface of the skin by way of the papillary canal
Dry skin is charcterized by signs such as peeling and flaking. Dry skin has fewer blemishes and is not prone to acne
Oily skin usually has an all-over shiny look and/or a rough texture with blackheads and enlarged pores.
Normal Skin is very rare and quite beautiful. healthy color,a firm, moist and smooth texture, freedom from blackheads and blemishes, and does not appear oily.
combination skin most common skin type can be found on people of most any age and is recognized by the shiny "T" zone(forehead,nose,and chin) noticeable dryness in the cheek,jaw line and hairline areas.
allergy is a sensitivity that may develop from contact with normally harmless substances.symptoms of an allergy may include itching,redness,swelling and/or blisters
inflammation is an objective symptom (one you can see) characterized by redness, pain, swelling and/or increased temperature
Chronic is a term used to identify conditions that are frequent and habitual
Acute is a term used to identify conditions that are brief and severe
Contagious disease is communicable by contact. It is also known as an infectiois or communicable disease
seasonal disease is influenced by weather
Etiology is the study of cause of diseases
Pathology is the study of diseases
Prognosis is a medical opinion of the future condition of illness
Dermatitis Venenata occupational disorders salon professionals may be susceptible to an allergic reaction to cosmetics or chemicals.sometimes referred to as contact dermatitis
Subjective subjective symptoms-those you feel.disorders or disease may be felt but not visible.Itching,burning,pain or symptoms that are felt are subjective symptoms
Objective those you see examples are pimples or inflammation are objective symptoms because they are visible
Six signs of infection pain,swelling,redness,local fever(heat),throbbing,discharge. avoid performing services
Lesions Diseases and disorders are often accompanied by skin lesions which are any abnormal changes in the structure of an orgnan or tissue
Macules-primary skin lesion are a discoloration appearing on the skin's surface
Freckles-primary skin lesion commonly found on the face,neck,and chest are considered macules
Papules-primary skin lesion are hardened red elevations of the skin in which no fluid is present. a pimple is an example of a papule.
Vesicles-primary skin lesion are fluid-filled elevations in the skin caused by localized accumulation of fluids or blood just below the epidermis
Herpes simplex* also known as fever blisters-primary skin lesion is contagious, chronic condition characterized by a single vesicle or a group of vesicles on a red, swollen base.
Bulla-primary skin lesion like vesicles,but larger. Found above and below the skin, they contain a clear, watery fluid. They occur in cases of second degree burns.
Pustules-primary skin lesion are small elevations of skin similar to vesicles in size and shape, but containing pus. They appear whitish or yellowish in color and may be surrounded by a reddish inflammatory border. They may develop from vesicles or papules.
wheals are solid formation above the skin often caused by an insect bite or allergic reaction
Tumors are solid masses in the skin
scales are shedding dead cells of the uppermost layer of the epidermis
Psoriasis* is round dry patches of skin, covered with rough silvery scales
Crusts are dried masses that are the remains of an oozing sore
Excoriations are mechanical abrasions to the epidermis or injuries to the epidermis
Fissures are cracks in the skin
Scars are formations resulting from a lesion
Keloids are thick scars
Ulcers* are open lesions visible on the skin surface that may result in the loss of portions of the dermis and may be accompanied by pus
Hypertophies are identified by an overgrowth or excess of skin
Callus sometimes called hyperkeratosis or Keratoma is a thickening of the epidermis which occurs from pressure and friction applied to the skin
Verruca* is a name given to a variety of warts
Warts contagious human papillomavirus warts can spread from one person to another
Skin Tags are small elevated growths of skin which can easily be removed by a physician
Pigmentation abnormalities describe conditions of too much color or too little color in a particular area of the skin
Melanoderma is the term used to describe hyperpigmentation caused by overactivity of the melanocytes in the epidermis
Hyperpigmentation abnormalities it can be triggered by over exposure to sunlight over activity ot the pituitary gland, circulation of hormones disease and drugs
Seborrheic Keratoses non-cancerous growth
Melasma Chloasma is characterized by a tan or brown patches on the cheeks
Chloasma is a group of brownish macules (non-elevated) spots occuring in one place
Moles are small brown pigmented spots that may be raised. Hair often grows through moles but should not be removed unless advised by a physician
Naevus Nevus is a birthmark or a congenital mole
Leukoderma describes hypopigmentation (lack of pigmentation) of the skin caused by a decrease in activity of melanocytes.
Albinism is a congenital failure of the skin to produce melanin pigment
Vitiligo is characterized by oval or irregular patches of white skin that do not have normal pigment
Comedones or blackheads are masses of sebum (oil) trapped in the hair follicles. Comedones can ber removed with proper extraction procedures
Milia or whiteheads are caused by the accumulation of hardened sebum beneath the skin.
Acne occurs most often on the face,back,and chest and is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous glands. Acne can be found in two stages: Acne Simplex or Acne Vulgaris.
Rosacea* or Acne Roscea is a chronic inflammatory congestion of the cheeks and nose observed as redness with papules and sometimes pustules present
Asteatosis is a condition of dry, scaly skin with reduced sebum production
Seborrhea is a condition caused by excessive secretion of the sebaceous glands
Steatoma or sebaceous cyst or wen, is a subcutaneous tumor of the sebaceous gland filled with sebum
Furnucles* or boils appear in the dermis and the epidermis and are caused by an acute bacterial infection.
Bromidrosis or osmidrosis is foul-smelling perspiration.
Anhidrosis is a lack of perspiration caused by fever or disease and requires medical attention
Hyperhidrosis is an over-production of perspiration caused by excessive heat or general body weakness and requires medical attention
Miliaria Rubra* or prickly heat is an acute eruption of small red vesicles with burning and itching of the skin caused by excessive heat.
Dermatitis* is an inflammatory disorder of the skin. The lesions come in various forms.
Impetigo* is a highly contagious bacterial infection that produces a honey-yellow, crusted lesion, usually on the face.
Hives* also called urticaria are an example of wheal lesions.
Nodule is a small tumor
Cyst is an abnormal membranous sac containing a gaseous,liquid or semi-solid substance.
Eczema* is characterized by dry or moist lesions with inflammation of the skin and requires medical attention.
Massage rubbing,pinching,tapping,kneading, or stroking with the hands, fingers or an instrument
Effleurage is a light relaxing smoothing gentle stroking or circular movement manipulation.
Petrissage is a light or heavy kneading and rolling of the muscles.
Tapotement or percussioins is a light tapping or slapping movement applied with the fingertips or partly flexed fingers.
Friction is a circular or wringing movement with no gliding usually carried out with the fingertips or palms of the hands.
Vibration is a shaking movement in the arms of the salon professionals while the fingertips or palms are touching the client.
Facial Mask or packs have many different benefits which include hydration adding moisture tightening of the pores and reduction of excess oil.
Hydration ability to keep the skin soft supple and maintain moisture through water.
Clay/Mud are usually recommended for normal or oily skin types.
Cream Masks are recommended for normal to dry skin.
Gel Masks are designed for a wide variety of purposes.
Modeling Masks are mixed with water and applied in a thick consistency to the face.
Hypertrichosis this condition of unwanted or superfluous hair is referred to as hypertrichosis
Shaving hair removal method most often used unwanted hair is shaving
Chemical Depilatory is a substance that dissolves the hair at skin level
Tweezing is the hair removal method most common used to remove unwanted hairs from smaller areas such as the eyebrows,chin,or around the mouth
Waxing is a procedured that is beneficial for temporarily removing hair from both large and small areas.
Threading is an ancient method of hair removal that utilizes 100% cotton thread that is twisted & rolled along the surface of the skin
Sugaring is a hair removal technique that utilizes a paste made primarily of sugar that is applied to the skin in a rolling motion
Electrolysis permanent hair removal uses electric current to change the cells of the papilla and disrupt hair growth
Galvanic electrolysis destroys the hair by decomposing the papilla
Thermolysis or high frequency/short-wave method involves inserting a single needle (probe) into the follicle
Blend Method of hair removal is a combination of galvanic and thermolysis technology
Laser Hair Removal treatments use wavelengths of light to penetrate and diminish or destroy hairbulbs.
Photo-epilation or pulsed light uses a similar principle as lasers,but this type of light is not considered to be a laser light
Pulsed-light also known as Photo-epilation uses a similar principle as lasers but this type of light is not considered to be a laser light. An intense pulse light beam creates a burst of energy used to destroy hair bulbs with minimal scarring
Oval face rounded,long and narrow rather than wide & short: no dominant areas
Round face looks circular appears to be rather short and wide rather than long and narrow
Oblong face long narrow and angular: jawline is wide and almost horizontal
Pear Shaped Face most often elongated with a forehead that is narrow and a jaw that is the widest area of the face
Square Face Short and Wide: looks angular with straight lines
Heart Shaped Face Long and angular: chin area is sometimes elongated and pointed, while forehead is wide
Diamond Shaped Face elongated and angular: its wides area is at the cheek bones, while the forehead and chin are narrow
Hue Name of a color: identifies the warmth or coolness of a color: Tone
Tint Hue with white added
Shade Hue with black added: Two dimensional representation of form consisting of length and width, but not depth: silhoutte or outer boundary
Value degree of lightness or darkness of a color: also known as level.
Intensity refers to the vividness,brightness or saturation of a color within its own level. Strength of the tone.
Tone Identifies the warmth or coolness of a color: Name of a color, hue.
Monochromatic color scheme using the same color throughout
Analogous Color scheme using three colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel.
Tridaic Color scheme using three colors located in a triangular position on the color wheel.
Complementary Colors found opposite one another on the color wheel: In hair color they neutralize or cancel out one another when they are mixed together: used to neutralize unwanted tones
Warm color orange,red and yellow ranges of the color wheel
Cool color violet, blue and green ranges of the color wheel
Foundation Make-up used to create an even skin tone and uniform surface
Highlighting Lightening of designated isolated strands of hair with lightener
Contour Outline of a figure: applying darker contour can narrow a wide jaw
Eyeliner Make-up used to accentuate and define the shape of the eye
Eye Shadow Make-up used to accentuate the shape and color of the eye: also contours
Mascara Make-up used to define, lengthen and thicken the eyelashes.
Eye Tabbing process of applying individual synthetic lashes to the client's own lashes
Facial Powder Make-up product primarily designed to "set" other make-up products so that they last longer without fading, streaking or rubbing off
Blush Make-up that adds color or contour to the cheeks
Lip Liner Make-up used to define natural shape of the lips or correct the shape
Lip Color The purpose of lip color is to complete the balance of color. Lip color is available in a variety of forms.
Created by: arlenebermudez on 2011-07-18



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