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Megan Scienc


Mass The measure if the amount in matter in an object, most commonly measured in grams or kilograms
volume The amount of space the mass of an object takes up, most commonly measured in cubic metres or centimetres. lxwxh. if an irregular shape displacement method is used.
Core The inner core is the deepest layer of Earth. Many scientists believe the inner core is made of iron and possibly other elements, such as silicon and carbon. The inner core is a solid ball, with a temperature of about 5000 ̊C–5700 ̊C.
Outer core The outer core is probably made of liquid iron and nickel. Sulphur and oxygen could also be present. The temperature in the outer core is over 4000 ̊C. The outer core is so hot that the iron and nickel are melted.
Mantle The mantle is the largest. Most of the upper part of the mantle is solid rock. The temperature in the upper layer of the mantle is approximately 1000 ̊C. The temperature in the lower area of the mantle is approximately 2500 degrees. like taffy.
Crust On the outside of Earth is a thin layer of solid rock called the crust. Earth’s crust extends under the oceans (the oceanic crust) as well as the continents (the continental crust). The depth of the crust varies from less than 5 km to over 50 km thick.
Moho Boundary separating the crust from the mantle
Lithosphere and plates Crust and upper mantle. Consists about a dozen huge plates, that fit together like a jigsaw puzzle.
Asthenosphere The semi molten zone just below the Lithosphere. in the lower mantle.
Convection current The a movement produced by the rising of warm materials and sinking of cool. scientist think there are convection currents in the upper mantle. As melted rock flows the plates in the lithosphere are moved.
Hardness A measure or a minerals resistance to being scratched. Using the Mohs scale. Made by Friedrich Mohs. Numbers 1-10 diamond being 10 and talc being 1.
Lustre all minerals have a different type of shine or lustre, it all depends on how light in reflected off the surface of the mineral. A mineral could be admantine, glassy, greasy, waxy, pearly, silky.
Colour Colour is colour. the colour of a minerla can be a clue to its identity. Some minerals can be found in several different colours, such as corundum.
streak When a mineral in rubbed across a porcelain tile the mark in leaves behind is called a streak.
Cleavage Cleavage is the breaks along a smooth flat area in a mineral. (mica seperates like pages in a book)
fracture Minerals that break with rough jagged edges have fracture
igneous rock Forms when hot magma cools and becomes solid.
Sedimentary rock Is made by the compaction of layers of sediment over time. Then cemented together in the process cementation.
Metamorphic rock When one type type of rock is changed into another. always under the surface of the earth.
Alloy An alloy is a metal made by combining two or more different elements which are metallic
Solute A substance that is going to be dissolved
Solvent The substance in which a solute will be dissolved in (Sugar is soluble in water)
Element A pure substance that cannot be separated into anything smaller than itself and is made of only one type of atom
Atom Made of protron, neutron and electron
atomic number of an atom the number of protons in an atoms nucleus make the atomic number. Basic unit of an element. A hydrogen atom has 1 electron and 1 proton in its nucleus.
Heterogenous a mixture when you can see the different parts. The parts are unevenly contributed. (concrete)
Homogenous A mixture when all parts are evenly contributed and you cannot see the difference under a microscope. (Pure gold in homogenous).
Emulsion When an emulsifying agent is added to a suspension to make the particles stay suspended for longer. (Mayo)
Suspension A heterogenous mixture where the particles settle slowly over time. (hot chocolate)
Solution A homogenous mixture. Solute+Solvent=Solution.
compound Ome or more element joined together to make a molecule. Water is a compound, of 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen.
Soluble/Insoluble Soluable means that a solute is able to disolve in a certain solvent, insoluble is when a solute can not disolve in a certain solvent.
Saturated/Dilute A concentrated solution has a large amount of solute for a certain amount of solute. A dilute solution has a small amount of solute for a certain amount of solvent.
Concentration The quantity of solute that can be disolved in a certain amount of solvent is the concentration of the solution.
Saturated solution A solution in which no more solute will disolve at a certain temperature.
Density The quantity of mass in a certain volume of material
Physical Change A material that changes its state or shape but keeps it identity.
Chemical Change When one type of matter changes to produce one or more different types of matter.
Acid A compound that dissolves in water to form a solution: Tastes Sour, corrodes metals, can cause severe burns to skin
Base A compound that dissolves in water to form a solution: Tastes Bitter, breaks down oils and fats, has a slippery texture and can cause severe burns to skin
Particle Model The scientific description of the features of matter *made up of particles too small to be seen, particles are always in motion, particles have empty spaces between them
pH scale A scale used to tell whether a substance is acid or base. The scake is numbered 0-14. anything less then 7 is acid. anything more the 7 is basic. Anything with a value of 7 is neutral (neither basic or acidic).
Litmus paper Litmus is a compound made of things extracted from organisms such and lichens. Litmus paper is a way to identify whether a substance is acid or base. There is red and blue.
Crystallization The process of evaporating a solvent from a solution and leaving behind the solute in crystal form
Distillation A process used to separate and collect the components of a solution. The solution is heated until it changes into a gas then the gas is changed back into a liquid by cooling it. The solute does not change state and is left behind.
Mineral a chemical element or compound that is naturally occurring and has a crystal structure.
fossil fuel Coal, Oil and Gas are all example of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are made when plant materials are compressed over millions of year.
Pangea The continent that scientists believe exsisted millions of year ago. scientists believe this because the plates seem to fit like a jigsaw puzzle. Believe it broke up 200 million years ago.
Plate Tectonics The theory that the plates interact with each other.
Trench A long narrow deep impression in the sea floor. Happens when Oceanic to Continental plates collide
Subduction Zone Where an oceanic plate goes underneath another plate.
Convergent boundary Where 2 plates collide with each other there are 3 different types. Oceanic to Continental : Oceanic to Oceanic : Continental to Continental
Mechanical Weathering Occurs when rocks are broken apart by physical processes but the makeup of the rock stays the same, burrowing animals, expanding ice and growing plants
Chemical Weathering Occurs when chemical changes dissolve minerals in rocks or change the minerals into different minerals
Divergent Boundary Occurs when two plates move away from each other. Sometimes causing Oceanic ridges
Transform Boundary When two plates slide past each other the plates move in opposite or the same direction at different rates. When one place slips past another plate suddenly and earth quake occurs.
Hydrothermal Vent Is an opening in the sea floor through which mineral rich water escapes just like hot springs on land the magma heats it.
Core Sample When drilling rigs are used on the sea floor a long cylindrical shape of rock is obtained this is the core sample
Sea floor spreading Is the process in which the sea floor slowly increase in size because of the formation of new crust.
Rift (valley) Is an opening in the OCEANIC crust where molten materials from the earths mantle can escape
Continental Shelf Is a shallow underwater ledge located between a continent and the deep ocean.
Continental Slope A steep slope in the sea bed between a continental shelf and the sea floor
Ocean Ridge Is a raised part of the sea floor which can become large enough to become and underwater mountain range. The Juan de Fuca Ridge off the West coast of BC is an example
Cross Section Is a drawing of what you see when you cut through an object
Erosion Is the transportation of sediment to another location. Ice is the strongest agent of erosion
Rock Cycle Consists of the processes when rocks are continually changed over long periods of time
Ecosystem monitoring A method of checking the condition of an ecosystem by comparing the results of investigations done at different times
Base line data Data gathered by scientists to be used as a starting point to track changes in the environment
Permanent Slots Study sites that scientist monitor year after year to gather information about an ecosystem
Annual Surveys Yearly counts of animals, such as birds.
Renewable Resources Resources that can be recycled or replaced in less then 100 years. such as trees.
Sustainability When natural resources are being renewed at least the same speed they are being used.
Introduced Species New species that are brought to an ecosystem either on purpose or by accident.
Native Species Organisms that occur naturally in an ecosystem.
Acid rain Rain that consists higher levels of acid then normal. Caused by waste gases released into the enviroment.
Endangered Species A species that is on risk of dying out entirely. so that it no longer exists.
Extinct No longer exsisting
Threatened Species A species that is on risk of becoming endangered if the factors limiting ti are not reversed.
Ecological Reserves Areas that are set aside to protect different habitats in provinces, as well as endangered species.
Habitat Enhancement Project A project that improves a habitat
Habitat Restoration Project A project that restores or improves a habitat that has been endangered.
Stewardship The careful and responsible management of something for which you are responsible
Selective Logging Taking only some of the resources available and leaving the rest so that they are not used up.
Captive Breeding A program used to try and boost the population of a species by mating animals in captivity then releasing off spring into the wild.
Ecology the study of interactions between organisms and there enviroments.
Ecosystem all the interacting organisms and the abiotic parts that effect them.
Biotic Living
Abiotic Not living
Community Made of interacting populations in an area.
niche Where an organism lives and the role that it plays.
Symbiosis A relationship between 2 species that lasts over time.
Biomes Ecosystems that have similar temperatures and amount of rainfall yearly. In canada Tundra, Grassland, Boreal forest and Temperate Forest
Climate The average weather pattern of a region over a long period of time.
Ecologist Studies Ecology
Parasitism A symbiotic relationship where one partner benefits and the other is harmed. like tapeworms and host
Commensalism A symbiotic relationship where one partner benefits and the other is not effected. Like barnacle and grey whales
Mutualism A symbiotic relationship where both partners are equal. like bacteria and termites
Producers Make food for them selves using sunlight.
Consumers Do not produce there own food so they eat producers or other comsumers.
Species A group of organisms that can successfully reproduce with each other.
Decomposers Break down waste
Population A group of organisms of the same species working together in one ecosystem.
Cellular Respiration When a consumer breaks down high energy foods such as starch and sugar to obtain energy.
Created by: galenteacher