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Science, Cells

cell transport, photosynthesis, & respiration

Selectively (semi-) permeable Certain things can pass through but others cannot
pores tiny holes
passive transport movement of materials in or out of the cell without the need for energy
diffusion the process by which molocules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
osmosis the diffusion of water molocules across a cell membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
equilibrium a state of balance
homeostasis the balence of important materials inside and outside
active transport the movement of larger molocules across the membrane, or to move molocules from an area of low concentration to an area of low concentration. Does not require energy
transport proteins pick up molocules and carry them in or out of the cell using their own energy in active transport
engulfing the cell membrane surrounds and engulfs a particle in active transport
endocytosis the process of bringing particles into the cell
exocytosis the process of getting particles out of the cell
photosynthesis how plants make food by using the energy from sunlight
autotroph an organism that makes its own food
heterotroph organisms that cannot make their own food
pigment color matter
chlorophyll/chloroplasts a green pigment that absorbs light energy from the sun
stomata small openings on he underside of the leaf that let in carbon dioxide
cellular respiration cells break down sugars obtained during photosynthesis and turn it into energy for the cell
How do cells get across the membrane? The cells go through the pores.
What are the two types of passive transport? diffusion and osmosis
What are two types of active transport? Transport proteins and engulfing.
How do passive and active transport differ from each other? Passive transport -smaller molocules -move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration -no energy required. Active transport- larger molocules -move from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration -requires energy
What are the two stages of photosynthesis? Capturing sun's energy and using the energy to make food
What happens during the stages of photosynthesis? 1. chloroplasts absorb suns energy 2. water, carbon dioxide, and light energy combine to make sugar and oxygen
Photosynthesis equasion 6CO(2) +6H(2)O+light energy yeilds C(6)H(12)O(6) + 6O(2)
What are the two stages of respiration? 1. in cytoplasm, oxygen not involved, glucose is broken down and small amount of energy is released. 2. glucose breaks down more, carbon dioxide and water diffuse out of the cell, more energy is released.
Respiration equasion C(6)H(12)O(6) + 6O(2) yeilds 6CO(2) + 6H(2)O + energy
What types of organisms undergo respiration? all living things
What types of organisms undergo photosynthesis? autotroph (plant)
Why is fermation different than respiration? fermation obtains energy without using oxygen
How is alcoholic fermation different from lactic acid fermation? Alcoholic fermation takes place when single celled organisms break down glucose, when lactic acid fermation takes place when your cells need oxygen
How is respiration (breathing) related to cellular respiration? Breathing brings in oxygen needed for cellular respiration
cells basic units of function & structure in living things
cell theory 1) all living things are made of cells 2
cell theory 1)all living things are made of cells 2) basic units of function & matter 3)all cells are produced from other cells
cell membrane protection, shape & support, semi-permiable
endoplasmic reticulum makes fats, transports substances(proteins)
ribosome make proteins
golgi apparatus packages proteins and carbohydrates & transports them
lysosome get rid of waste & old cell parts (use digestive enzymes)
vacuole storage container (stores: water, food, waste)
mitochondria breaks down energy from proteins for the cell
nucleus control center, holds genetic material
nucleolus makes ribosomes
cytoplasm jelly substance that holds organelles in place & protects
cell wall only on plant cells, gives shape to keep plant upright, made of cellulose
Robert Hooke looked at corck "cells=small rooms"
Anton van Leeuwenhook found little organisms in pond water
deletion when a nitrogen base is taken out
insertion when a nitrogen base is added
substitution when a itrogen base is substituted
repair enzymes scout DNA for mistakes
mutagens things that cause DNA
How do you make a copy of DNA? mRNA makes copy of DNA and brings it to the ribosomes. tRNA brings amino acids whoch make proteins
prokaryote no nucleus
eukaryote has nucleus
cell cycle process by which the cell divides
Interphase rests, grows, centriols & organelles double
Mitosis process where the cell forms a new nucleus
Chromatin thread-like bodies in the nucleus
chromatids condensed chromatin
chromosome DNA carrying bodies in the nucleus
centromere where the chromosomes are joined
spindle fibers stringy things that form around centriols
cytokonesis the final stage of the cell cycle, where the cell membrane pinches in forming two cells
centriols cylerical structures
cell plate when eukaryotic cells woth a cell wall divide, a cell plate forms to divide them
Created by: Adamakos