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HSC Mod 2-Theories

A set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of events or situations by specifying relations among variables in order to explain and predict events Theory
Purpose of a Theory general explanation of why people act or do not act to maintain and promote the health of themselves, their families, organizations, and communities
Why we use theories -key to effective planning -helps us understand nature of targeted behavior (dynamics, processes of change, effects of external influences) -helps us identify the most suitable targets for change -facilitates evaluation -replicate successful programs
Choice of theory depends on these 4 things -nature of problem -setting -target audience (demographics) -program goals
Describes interrelation between organisms and their environment Ecology
Social, institutional, and cultural contexts of people (environmental relations) Social Ecology
first 2 assumptions of Social Ecological Model 1) health is influenced by multiple facets of physical & social environments 2) human environments are multidimensional & complex (physical v. social, proximal v. distal, objective v. subjective)
last 2 assumptions of Social Ecological Model 3)participants & environments should be studied at varying levels 4)people & environment transactions are characterized by cycles of mutual influence (reciprocal determinism)
5 Phases/Levels of Social Ecological Model 1) Intrapersonal 2) Interpersonal 3) Institutional Factors 4) Community Factors 5) Public Policy
Level of SEM that includes an individual's personal attributes, knowledge, attitude, beliefs, experiences & values Intrapersonal
Level of SEM that includes formal and informal social network and social support systems (family, work, friends); and social support is conducive to health change Interpersonal
Level of SEM that includes social institutions with organizational characteristics and a corporate culture where employees feel that there is management support in health programs. Institutional Factors
Level of SEM that includes relationships among organizations, institutions, etc. A lot of linkage. Community Factors
Level of SEM that includes local, state, and national laws and policies Public Policy
Strengths of Transtheoretical Model Behavior change takes TIME, change is INCREMENTAL, stage-matching of INTERVENTIONS
6 Phases of Transtheoretical Model Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Termination
Phase of TTM- no intention to take action, lack of awareness, defense mechanisms Precontemplation
Phase of TTM- person is aware of the pros and cons of making the change and informed decision making takes place. Ambivalence may occur Contemplation
Phase of TTM- person intends to take action within the next month. Plan of action is KEY. These people should be targets of action-oriented programs Preparation
Phase of TTM- person has made specific overt modifications of behavior within the past 6 months (only sufficient action counts), least help needed from health educator Action
Phase of TTM- efforts are being expended to prevent relapse and not a lot of new change is occurring. Self-efficacy and relapse prevention plans needed. Maintenance
Phase of TTM- no temptation to relapse and 100% self-efficacy. Main goal for addiction type programs and applies mostly to certain types of behavior. Termination
Process of Change- awareness occurs Consciousness Raising
Process of Change- experience emotions connected with unhealthy behavioral risks Dramatic Relief
Process of Change- cognitive and affective assessments of self image with and without the unhealthy habit Self-Reevaluation
Process of Change- cognitive and affective assessments of the relationships of the habit to one's social environment Environmental Reevaluation
Process of Change- belief that one can change and commitment to act on that belief Self Liberation
Process of Change- Social support (building psychosocial assets) Helping Relationships
Process of Change- learning healthier alternatives to unhealthy habits Counterconditioning
Process of Change- operant conditioning (punishment/incentives); consequences for taking steps in a particular disease Contingency Management
Process of Change- remove cues for unhealthy habits Stimulus Control
Process of Change- increasing social opportunities and alternatives especially for those otherwise deprived Social Liberation
Model used to predict what a person is going to do due to personal perceptions that guide behavior (these perceptions are usually inaccurate) Health Belief Model
Health Belief Model is effective with the preventive behavior is a ______ ______ action Short term or "one shot"
This component of the Health Behavior Model seems to have more predictive value than any other component Benefits/Barriers
Components of Health Belief Model (9) 1) Perceived Susceptibility 2) Perceived Severity 3) Modifying Factors 4) Behavioral Intention 5) Cues to Action 6) Perceived Benefits 7) Perceived Barriers 8) Behavior 9) Self-efficacy
Created by: 1093560039