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Ehsani APES Chap 1

State of Our Earth

Environment The sum of all the conditions surrounding us that influence life.
Environmental Science The field that looks at interactions among human systems and those found in nature.
Ecosystem A particular location on Earth whose interacting components include biotic and abiotic components.
Biotic component A living component
Abiotic component A non-living component
Environmentalism A social movement that seeks to protect the environment through lobbying, activism, and education.
Environmentalist A person who participates in environmentalism.
Ecosystem Services The products of natural environments that are life-supporting resources such as clean water, timber, fisheries, and agricultural crops.
Environmental Indicators The different traits of a natural system that are measured and used to describe the health and quality of the natural system.
Sustainability A philosophy of living that allows us to use the Earth's resources without depriving future generations of those resources.
The Five global-scale environmental indicators 1. Biological Diversity 2. Food Production 3. Average Global Surface Temperature & CO2 Concentration 4. Human Population 5. Resource Depletion
Biodiversity The diversity of life forms in an environment. Includes genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity.
Genetic Diversity A measure of the genetic variation among individuals in a population.
Species Diversity The number of species in a region or in a particular type of habitat.
Species A group of organism that is distinct from other groups and which can breed to produce fertile offspring.
Speciation The evolution of new species.
Background Extinction Rate The average rate at which species go extinct over the long term.
Ecosystem Diversity Measures the diversity of ecosystems or habitats that exist in a given region.
Hectare A measure of land area, 100 meters x 100 meters. Abbreviated ha.
Conversion factor for hectare to acres. 2.47 acres/ha
Conversion factor for square mile to acres. 1 square mile = 640 acres
per capita per person
Greenhouse Gases Heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere. Most important is CO2.
Anthropogenic Caused by human activities.
Greenhouse Effect Heat-trapping greenhouse gases causes the Earth to be warmer than expectec.
Current Human Population 6.8 billion
Projected Human Population in 2050 8.1 to 9.6 billion
Resource Depletion The heavy use of natural resources.
Development The improvement in human well-being through economic advancement.
Human Needs Includes our basic physical needs plus our need to be connected to life through access to natural areas for beauty and for social connections
Ecological Footprint Measures how much land is needed to supply the goods and services that an individual uses.
Living Sustainably Our ecological footprint is less than the land available.
Living Unsustainably Our ecological footprint is more than the land available.
Scientific Method An objective way to explore the natural world, draw inferences from it, and predict the outcome of certain events, processes, or changes.
Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Observations & questions 2. Forming hypotheses 3. Collecting data 4. Interpreting results 5. Disseminating findings
Hypothesis A testable conjecture about how something works.
Null Hypothesis A statement or idea that can be falsified or proved wrong.
Replication of data A procedure during data collection where several sets of measurements are taken.
Sample size The number of times a measurement is replicated.
Accuracy How close a measured value is to the actual or true value.
Precision How close to one another the repeated measurements of the same sample are.
Uncertainty An estimate of how much a measured or calculated value differs from a true value.
Inductive reasoning The process of making general statements from specific facts or examples.
Deductive reasoning The process of applying a general statement to specific facts or situations.
Critical Thinking The process used to critique scientific data, how it was collected and if its conclusions are valid.
Theory A repeatedly tested hypothesis that was confirmed by multiple groups of researchers and has reached wide acceptance.
Natural Law A theory to which there are no known exceptions and which has withstood rigorous testing.
Control Group A group that experiences exactly the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the single variable under study.
Natural Experiment An experiment that happens when a natural event acts as an experimental treatment in an ecosystem. Ex. a volcano destroys a forest
Environmental Justice A social movement and field of study that works toward equal enforcement of environmental laws and the elimination of disparities, whether intended or unintended.
Created by: ehsanip