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Unit 1,2

Exam 1

Medical TermonologyDefinition
Aden/o Gland
Arthr/o joint
bi/o life
carcin/o cancer,canerous
cardi/o heart
cephal/o head
cerebr/o cerebrum, largest part of the brain
cyst/o urinary bladder
cyt/o cell
derm/o dermat/o skin
electr/o electricity
encephal/o brain
enter/o intestines (often small)
erythr/o red
gastr/o stomach
gnos/o knowledge
gynec/o woman, female
hem/o hemat/o blood
hepat/o liver
lapar/o abdomen
leuk/o white
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
onc/o tumor
ophthalm/o eye
oste/o bone
path/o disease
psych/o mind
ren/o kidney
rhin/o nose
sarc/o flesh
thromb/o clotting
-algia pain
-cyte cell
-ectomy cutting out; removal, excision
-emia blood condition
-globin protein
-gram record
-ia condition
-ic pertaining to
-ism condition, process
-itis inflammation
-logist specialist in the study of
-logy study of
-oma tumor, mass
-opsy to view
-osis abnormal condition
-scope intsrument to visually examine
-scopy process of visual examination
-sis state of
-tomy process of cutting into; incision
a-, an- not, no
aut- self
dia- complete, through
dys- bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
endo- within
exo- outside
hyper- excessive, more than normal, too much
hypo- below, less than normal, under
pro- before, forward
re- back
retro- behind
sub- below, under
trans- across, through
abdomin/o abdomen
anter/o front
bronch/o bronchial tubes
cervic/o neck of body or neck of the uterus
chondr/o cartilage
coccyg/o coccyx, tailbone
crani/o skull
epitheli/o skin, surface tissue
esophag/o esophagus
hepat/o liver
lapar/o abdomen
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
later/o side
lumb/o loin (waist)
lymph/o lymph
mediastin/o mediastinum (space btw the lungs)
pelv/o pelvis
peritone/o peritoneum (membrane surrounding the abdomen)
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
pleur/o pleura
poster/o back, behind
spin/o spine (backbone)
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
vertebr/o vertebra (backbone)
Alexian Brothers Organized care for victims of the Black Plague in the 14th century in Germany.
caregiver a role that has traditionally included those activities that assist the client physically and psychologically
Case Manager a nurse who works with the multidisciplinary health care team to measure the effectiveness of the case management plan and monitor outcomes.
Change Agent persons or groups who initiate change or who assist others in making modifications in themselves or in the system.
Clara Barton a schoolteacher who volunteered as a nurse during the Civil War. Most notabley, she organized the American Red Cross.
Client a person who engages the advicce or services of another person who is qualified to provide this service
Client Advocate a person who acts to protect the client.
communicator nurses identify client problems and then communicate these verballyor in writing to other members of the health team.
consumer an individual, a group of people, or a community that uses a service or commodity
(CE) Continuing Education
Continuing Education formalized experiences designed to enlarge the knowledge or skills of practitioners
Counceling the process of helping a client to recognize and cope with stressful psychologic or social problems, to develop improved improved interpersonal relationships, and to promote personal growth.
Demography the study of population including statistics about distribution by age and place of residence, mortality, and morbidity.
(DRGs) Diagnosis-related groups
Diagnosis-related groups a Medicare payments system to hospitals and physicians that establishes fees according to diagnosis
Dorothea Dix woman leader who provided nursing care duing the Civil War
Fabiola a wealthy Roman matron; viewed by some as the patron saint of early nursing who used her position and wealth to establish hospitals for the sick.
Florence Nightingale considered the founder of modern nursing, she was influential in developing nursing education, practice, and administration
Governance the establishment and maintenance of social, political, and economic arrangements by which practitioners control their practice, self-discipline, working conditions, and professional affairs
Harriet Tubman known as "the Moses of Her People" for her work with the underground Railroad; duing the Civil War she nursed the sick and suffering of her own race.
In-Service education education that is designed to upgrade the knowledge
Knights of Saints Lazarus an order of knights that dedicated themselves to the care of people with leprosy, syphilis, and chronic skin conditions
Lavinia L. Dock a nursing leader and suffragist who was active in the protest movement for wormen's rights that resulted in the U.S. Constitution amendment allowing women to vote in 1920
Leader a person who influences others to work together to accomplish a specific goal
Lillian Wald founder of the Henry Street Settlement and Visiting Nurse Service, which provided nursing and social services and organized educational and cultural activities; considered the founder of public health nursing
Linda Richards America's first trained nurse
Luther Christman a male nurse of distinction in the U.S. A chairman of the board of AAMN
AAMN American Assembly for Men in Nursing
Manager one who is appointed to a position in an organization that gives the power to guide and direct the work of others
Margaret Higgins Sanger Considered the founder of planned parenthood, was imprisoned for opening the first birth control information clinic in Baltimore in 1916
Mary Breckinridge a nurse who practiced midwivery in England, Australia, and New Zealand; founded the Frontier Nursing Service in Kentucky in 1925 to provide family-centered primary health care to rural populations
Mary Mahoney First Afrian American professional nurse
patient a person who is waiting for or undergoing medical treatment and care
PSDA Patient Self-Determination Act
patient self-detemination act legislation requiring that every competent adult be informed in writing on admission to a health care institution about his or her rights to accept or refuse medical care and to use advance directives
profession an occupation that requires extensive education or a calling that requires special knowledge, skill and preparation
professionalism a set of attributes, a way of life that implies responsibility and commitment
Sairy Gamp a character in the Charles Dickens book Martin Chizzlewit who represented the NEGATIVE image of nurses in the early 1800s
socialization a process by which a person learns the ways of a group or society in order to become a functioning participant
Sojourner Truth an abolitionist, Underground Railroad agent, preacher, and women's rights advocate, she was a nurse for more than 4 years during the Civil War and worked as a nurse and counselor for the Freedman's Relief Association after the war
standards of practice descriptions of the responsibilities for which nurses are accountable
Standards of professional performance as set by the American Nurses Association, describe behaviors expected in the professional nursing role
ANA American Nursing Association
teacher a nurse who helps clients learn about their health a nd the health care procedures they need to perform to restore or maintain their health
Telecommunications the transmission of information from one site to another, using equipment to transmit information in the forms of signs, signals, words, or pictures by cable, radio, or other systems
Aesthetic knowing providing care and meeting the needs of clients through creativity and style
Caring intentional action that conveys physical and emotional security and genuine connectedness with another person or group of people
Caring practice nursing care that includes connection, mutual recognition, and involvement
Empirical knowing knowledge that comes from science; ranges from factual, observable phenomena to theoretical analysis
Ethical knowing knowledge that focuses on the matters of obligation or what ought to be done
personal knowing promotes wholeness and integrity in the personal encounter to achieve engagement
Reflection thinking from a critical point of view, analyzing why one acted in a certain way, and assessing the results of one's actions
Acquired immunity a resistance of the body to infection in which the host receives natural or artificial antibodies produced by another source
Active immunity a resistance of the body to infection in which the host produces its own antibodies in response to natural or artificail antigens
Acute infections those that generally appear suddenly or last a short time
airborne precautions used for clients known to have or suspected of having serious illnesses transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei smaller than 5 microns
antibodies immunoglobulins, part of the body's plasma proteins, defend primarily against the extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections
antigen a substance capable of inducing the formation of antibodies
antiseptic an agent that inhibits the growth of some microorganisms
asepsis freedom from infection or infectious material
autoantigen an antigen that originates in a person's own body
bacteremia bacteria in the blood
bacteria the most common infection-causing microorganisms
bloodborne pathogens potentially infectious organisms that are carried in and transmitted through blood or materials containing blood
Carrier person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent and serves as a potential source of infection, yet does not manifest any clinical signs of disease
Cell-mediated defenses Cellular immunity Occur thru the T-cell system
chronic infections infection that occurs slowly, over a very long period of time and may last months or years
Circulating immunity Humoral immunity antibody-mediated defense; resides ultimately in the B lymphocytes and is mediated by the antibodies produced by B cells
clean free of potentially infectious agents
colonization the presence of organisms in body secretions or excretions in which strains of bacteria become resident flora but do not cause illness
communicable disease a disease that can spread from one person to another
compromised host any person at increased risk for an infection
contact percautions used for clients known or suspected to have serious illnesses easily transmitted by direct client contact or by contact with items in the client's environment.
cultures laboratory cultivations of microorganisms in a special growth medium
dirty denotes the likely presence of microorganisms, some of which may be capable of causing infection
disease an alteration in body function resulting in a reduction of capacities or shortening of the normal life span
disinfectant agent that destroys microorganisms other than spores
droplet nuclei residue of evaporated droplets emitted by an infected host, such as someone with tuberculosis, that can remain in the air for long periods of time.
droplet precautions used for clients known or suspected to have serious illnesses transmitted by particle droplets larger than 5 microns
endogenous developing from within
exogenous developing from outside sources
exudate purulent drainage
fungi infection-causing microorganisms that include yeasts and molds
granulation tissue young connective tissue with new capillaries formed in the wound healing process
HAI Health care-associated infection
Health care-associated infection Nosocomial infections that originate in any health care setting
iatrogenic infections infections that are the direct result of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures
immune defenses specific immune defenses immune functions directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other infectious agents
immunity a pecific resistance of the body to infection; it may be natural, or resistance may develop after exposure to a disease agent
immunoglobulins antibodies
infection the disease process produced by microorganisms
inflammation local and nonspecific defensive tissue response to injury or destruction of cells
isolation practices that prevent the spread of infection and communicable disease
Leukocytes white blood cells
local infection an infection that is limited to the specific part of the body where the microorganisms remain
leukocytosis an increase in the number of white blood cells
medical asepsis all practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area, limiting the number, growth, and spread of microorganisms
nonspecific defenses bodily defenses that protect a person against all microorganisms, regardless of prior exposure
nonsocomial infections infections that originate in a hospital
occupational exposure skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with bloold or other potentiall infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties
opportunistic pathogen a microorganism causing disease only in a susceptible individual
parasites microorganisms that live in or on another from which it obtains nourishment
pathogenicity the ability to produce disease; a pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease
regeneration renewal, regrowth, the replacement of destroyed tissue cells by cells that are identical or similar in structure and function
reservoir a source of microorganisms
resident flora microorganisms that normally reside on the skin and mucous membranes, and inside the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts
respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette calls for covering the mouth and nose when seneezing or coughing, proper disposal of tissues, and separating potentially infected persons from others by at least 1m or having them wear a surgical mask.
sepsis the presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the blood or body tissues
septicemia occurs when bacteremia results in systemic infection
SP standard precautions
standard precautions the risk of caregiver exposure to client body tissues a nd fluids rather than the suspected presence or absence of infectious organisms detemines the use of clean gloves, gowns, masks, and eye protection
sterile field a microorganism-free area
sterile technique practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganisms
sterilization a process that destroys all microorganisms, including spores and viruses
surgical asepsis practices that keep an area or oject free of all microorganisms; also called sterile technique
sytemic infection occurs when pathogens spread and damdge different parts of the body
UP Universal Precautions
universal precautions techniques to be used with all clients to decrease the risk of transmitting unidentified pathogens; currently, standard precautions incorporate UP and BSI
vector-borne transmission transport of an infectious agent from an animal or flying or crawling insect that serves as an intermediate means via biting or depositing feces or other materials on the skin
vehicle-borne transmission transport of an infectious agent in to a susceptible host via any intermediate substance
virulence ability to produce disease
viruses nucleic acid-based infectious agents
case management a method for delivering nursing care in which the nurse is responsible for a caseload of clients across the health care continuum
coinsurance an insurance plan in which the client pays a percentage of the payment and some other group pays the remaining percentage
critical pathways multidisciplinary guidelines for client care based on specific medical diagnoses designed to achieve predetermined outcomes
diagnosis-related groups a medicare payments system to hospitals and physicians that establishes fees according to diagnosis
DRGs Diagnosis-related groups
differentiated practice a system in which the best possible use of nursing personnel is based on their educational preparation and resultant skill sets
health care system the totality of services offered by all health disciplines
health maintenance organization a group of health care agency that provides basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services to voluntary enrollees
HMO Health Care Organization
IPAs Independent practice associations
Independent practice associations provide care in offices; clients pay a fixed prospective payment and IPA pays the provider; earning or losses are assumed by the IPA
IDS Integrated Delivery System
integrated delivery system a system that ncorporates acute care services, home health care, extended and skilled care facilities and outpatient services
licensed vocational (practical) nurse a nurse who practices under the supervision of a registured nurse, providing basic direct technical care to clients
LVN/LPN licensed vocational nurse/licensed practical nurse
managed care a method of organizing care delivery that emphasizes communication and coordination of care among all health care team members
medicaid a U.S. federal public assistance program paid out of general taxes and administered through the individual states to provide health care for those who require financial assistance
medicare a national and state health insurance program for U.S. residents older than 65 years of age
patient-focused care deliver model that brings all services and care providers to the client
preferred provider arrangements similar to PPOs, but PPAs can contract with individual health care providers; the plan can be limited or unlimited.
PPAs preferred provider arrangements
PPO Preferred provider organization
preferred provider organization a group of phusicians or a hospital that provides companies with health services at a discounted rate
SSI Supplemental Security income
Supplemental security income special payments for people with disabilities, those who are blind, and people who are not eligible for social security; these payments are not restricted to health care costs
team nursing the delivery of individualized nursing care to clients by a team led by a professional nurse
asphyxiation lack of oxygen due to interrupted breathing
bioterrorism interntional attack using biological weapons such as viruses, bacteria, or other germs
burn results from excessive exposure to thermal, chemical, electric, or radioactive agents
carbon monoxide an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas that is very toxic
chemical restraints medications used to control socially disuptive behavior
electric shock occurs when through a current travels through the body to the ground rather than through electric wiring, or from static electricity that builds up on the body
heimlich maneuver abdominal thrusts used to clear an obstructed airway
physical restraints any manual method or physical or mechanical device, material, or equipment attached to the clients body that cannot be removed easily and that restraints the client's movements
restraints protective devices used to limit physcial activity of the client of a part of the body
safety monitoring devices an electronic sensor or monitor that detects wehn clients are attempting to get out of a bed or chair and triggers an alarm
scald a burn from a hot liquid or vapor, such as a steam
seizure a sudden onset of excessive electrical discharges in one or more area of the brain
seizure precautions safety measures taken to protect clients from injury should they have a seizure
attentive listening listening actively, using all senses, as oposed to listening passively with just the ear
boundaries limits in which a person may act or refrain from acting within a designeated time or place
bullying offensive abusive, intimidating, insulting behavior or abuse of power...which makes the recipient feel upset, threatened, humiliated, or vulnerable, which undermines their self-confidence and may cause them to suffer stress
communication a two-way process involving the sending and receiving of messages
congruent communication the verbal and nonverbal aspects of the message match
decode to relate the message perceived to the receiver's storehouse of knowledge and experience and to sort out the meaning of the message
elderspeak speech style similar to babytalk; gives the message of dependnce and incompetence to older adults
electronic communication communication involving computers and technology
e-mail the most comon form of electronic communication
emotional intelligence the ability to form work relationships with colleagues, display maturity in a variety of situations, and resolve conflicts while taking into consideration the emotions of others
empathy the ability to discriminate what the other person's world is like and to communicate to the other this understanding in a way that shows that the helper understands teh client's feelings and the behavior and experience underlying these feelings
encoding involves the selection of specific signs or symbols to transmit the message, such as which language and words to use, how to arrange the words, and what tone of voice and gestures to use
feedback the response or message that the receiver returns to the sender duing communication
group two or more people with shared purposes and goals
group dynamics forces that determine the behavior of the group and the relationships among the group members
helpiing relationships the nurse-client relationship
incivility rude, discourteous, or disrespectful behavior that relects a lack of regard for others
lateral violence horizontal violence/hostility terms that describe pgysical, verbal, or emotional abuse or aggression directed at RN coworkers at the same organizational level
nonverbal communicaion communication other than words including gestures, posture, and facial expressions
personal space the distance people prefer in interactions with others
process recording the verbatim (word for word) account of a conversation
proxemics the study of distance between people in their interactions
territoriality a concept of the space and things that indiduals cosider their own
therapeutic communication an interactive process between nurse and client that helps the client overcome temporary stress, to get along with other people, to adjust to the unalterable, and to overcome psychologic blocks that stand in the way of self-realization
verbal communication use of verbal language to send and receive messages
accountability the ability and willingness to assume responsibility for one's actions and to accept the consequencesof one's behavior
authoritarian leader the individual who makes decisions for the group
authority the power given by an organization to direct the work of others; the right to act
autocratic leader Same as authoritian leader
Bureaucratic leader does not trust self or others to make decisions and instead relies on the organization's rules, policies, and procedures to direct the group's work efforts
change process of making something different from what it is
charismatic leader characterized by an emotional relationship between the leader and the group members; personality of the leader evokes strong feelings of commitment to both the leader and the leader's cause and beliefs
coordinating the process of ensuring that plans are carried out and evaluating outcomes
delegation transference of responsibility and authority for an activity to a compete
democratic leader encourages group discussion and decision making
directing a management function that involves communicating the task to be completedand providing guidance and supervision
effectiveness a measure of the quality or quantity of services provided
efficiency a measure of the resources used in the provision of nuring services
first-level manager a manager responsible for managing the work of nonmangerial personnel and the day-to-day activities of a specific work group or groups
Formal leader an appointed leader selected by an organization and given official authority to make decisions and act
influence an informal strategy used to gain the cooperation of others without exercising formal authority
informal leader an individual selected by the group as its leader because of seniority, age, special abilities or charisma
laissez-faire leader nondirective, permissive recognizes the group's need for autonomy and self-regulation
leader a person who influences others to work together to accomplish a specific goal
leadership style describes traits, behaviours, motivations, and choices used by indibiduals to effectively influence others
manager one who is appointed to a position in an organization that gives the power to guide and direct the work of others
mentors a person who serves as an experienced guide, adviser, or advocate and assumes responsibility for promoting the growth and professional advancement of a less experienced individual
middle-level manager a manager that supervises a number of first-level managers and is responsible for the activities in the departments supervised
networking a process by which people develop linkages throughout the profession to communicate, share ideas and information, and offer support and direction to each other
organizing determining responsibilities, communication experctations, and establishing the chain of command for authority and communication
permissive leader same as laissez-faire leader
planned change an intended,
planning an ongoing process that involves:assessing a situation;establishing goals and objecties based on assessment of a situationor future trends;and developing a plan of action that identifies priorities, delineates who is responsible, determines deadlines, and
preceptor an experienced nurse who assists the novice nurse in improving nursing skill and judgment
productivity in health care, frequently measured by the amount of nrsing resources used per client or in terms of required versus actual hours of care provided
responsibility the specific accountablity or liability associated with the performance of duties of a particular role
risk management having in place a system to reduce danger to clients and staff
role model providing an example of acceptable behaviors through demonstration
shared governance a method that aims to distribute decision making among a group of people
shared leadership a contemporary theory of leadership that recognizes the leadership capabilities of each member in a professional group and assumes that appropriate leadership will emerge in relation to the challenges that confront the group
situational leader adapts sytle according to consideration of the staff members' abilities, knowledge of the nature of the task to be done, and sensitivity to the context or environment in which the task takes place
top-level managers organizational executive primarily responsible for establishing goals and developing strategic plans
Transactional leader a contemporary theory of leadership in which resources are exchanged as an incentive for loyalty and performance
transformational leader leader who fosters creativity, risk taking, commitment, and collaboration by empowering the group to share in the organization's vision
unplanned change haphazard change that occurs without control by any person or group
upper-level managers organizational executives who are primarily responsible for establishing goals and developing strategic plans
vision the mental image of a possible and desirable future state
alopecia the loss of scalp hair (baldness) or body hair
apocrine glands sweat glands located largely in the axillae and anogenital areas; they begin to function at puberty under the nfluence of androgens
bactericidal bacteria-killing action
callus a thickened portion of the skin
cerumen earwax
cleansing baths a bath given for hygienic purposes
corn a conical, circular, painful, raised area on the toe or foot
cross contamination the movement of microorganisms from one client to another
dandruff a diffuse scaling of the scalp, often accompanied by itching
dental caries tooth decay
eccrine glands glands that produce sweat; found over most of the body
fissures deep grooves that occur as a result of dryness and cracking of the skin
gingiva of or relating to the gums
gingivitis red, swollen gingiva
hirsutism the growth of excessive body hair
hygiene the science of health and its maintenance
ingrown toenail the growing inward of the nail into the soft tissues aroun it, most often results from improper nail trimming
lanugo the fine, wooly hair or down on the shoulders, back, sacrum, and earlobes of the unborn child that may remain for a few weeks after birth
pediculosis (lice) infestation with head lice
periodontal disease disorder of the supporting structures of the teeth
plantar warts a wart on the sole of the foot
plaque an invisable soft film consisteing of bacteria, molecules of saliva and remnants of epithelial cells and leukocytes that adheres to teh enamel surface of teeth
pyorrhea advanced periodontal disease in which teeth are loose and pus is evident when the gums are pressed
sebum the oily, lubrication secretion of sebaceous glands in the skin
scabies a contagious skin infestation by the itch mite that produces intense itching, especially at night
sudoriferous glands sweat glands of the dermis that secrete sweat
sweat glands same as sudoriferous glands
tartar a visible, hard deposit of plaque and dead bacteria that forms at the gum lines
therapeutic baths a bath given for physical effects, such as to soothe irritated skin or to promote healing of an area, tow common types are the sitz bath and the medicated bath
ticks small, gray-brown parasites that bite into tissue and suck blood and transmit serveral diseases to people, in particular Rock Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and tularemia
tinea pedis athlete's foot (ringworm of the foot), which is caused by a fungus
xerostomia dry mouth as a result of a reduced supply of saliva
atelectasis collapse of the aiara sacs
circulating nurse coordinates activities and manages client care by continually assessing client safety, aseptic practice, and the environment with the scrub nurse, is responsible for accounting for all sponges, needles, and instruments at the close of surgery
closed-wound drainage system consists of a drain connected to either an electric suction or a portable drainage suction
conscious sedation a minimal depression of level of consciousness during which the client retains the ability to consciously maintain a patent airway and respond appropriately to verbal and physical stimuli
elective surgery performed when sugical intervention is the preferred treatment for a condition that is not imminently life threatening or to improve the clients life
emboli embolus (singular) a blood clot that has moved from its place of origin and is causing obstruction to circulation elsewhere
emergency surgery surgery that is performed immediately to perserve function or the life of the client
epidural anesthesia an injection of an anesthetic agent into the epidural space
general anesthesi the induced loss of all sensation and consciousness
intraoperative phase the phase of surgery that begins when the client is transferred to the operating room and ends when the client is admitted to the postanesthesia care unit
local anesthesia an anesthetic agent used for minor surgical procedures that is injected into a specfic area
major surgery surgery that involves a high degree of risk for a variety of reasons; it may be complicated or prolonged; large losses of blood may occur; vital organs may be involved; postoperative complications may occur
minor surgery surgery that involves little risk, produces few complications, and is often performed in a "day surgery" facility
nerve block chemical interruption of a nerve pathway effected by injecting a local anesthetic
penrose drain a flat, this, rubber tube inserted into a wound to allow for fluid to flow from the wound; it has an open end that drains onto a dressing
peridural anesthesia same as epidural snesthesia
perioperative period refers to the 3 phases of surgery: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative
postoperative phase the period of surgery that begins with the admission of teh client to the postanesthesia area and ends when healing is complete
preoperative phase the period of surgery that begins when the decision for surgery has been made and ends when the client is transferred to the operation room bed
regional anesthesia temporary interruption of the transmission of nerve impulses to and from a specific are or region of the body; the client loses sensation in an area of the body but remains conscious
scrub person usually UAP but can be RN or LPN; assists the surgeons by draping the client with sterile drapes and handling sterile instruments and supplies; with the circulating nurse, is responsible for accounting for all sponges, needles, and instruments at closing
spinal anesthesia anesthesia produced by injecting an anesthetic agent into the subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord; aka subarachnoid block (SAB)
subarachnoid block same as spinal anesthesia
SAB subarachnoid block
surface anesthesia same as topical anesthesia
suture a thread used to sew body tissues together
thrombophiebitis inflammation of a vein followed by formation of a blood clot
thrombus thrombi (plural) a solid mass of blood constituents in the circulatory system; a clot.
tissue perfusion passage of fluid through a specific organ or body part
topical anesthesia applied directly to the skin and mucous membranes, open skin surfaces, wounds, and burns
afebrile absence of a fever
apical pulse a central pulse located at the apex of the heart
apical-radial pulse measurement of the apical and radial pulse simultaneously
apnea a complete absence of respriations
arrhythmia an irregular heart rythm
arterial blood pressure the measure of the pressure exerted by the blood as it pulsates through the arteries
arteriosclerosis a condition in which the elastic and muscular tissues of the arteries are replaced with fibrous tissue
auscultatory gap the temporary disappearance of sounds normally heard over the brachial artery when the sphygmomanometer cuff pressure is high, followed by the reappearance of sounds at a lower level
basal metabolic rate the rate of energy utilization in the body required to maintain essential activities such as breathing
BMR basal metabolic rate
body temperature the balance between the heat produced by the body and the heat lost from the body
bradycardia abnormally slow pulse rate, less than 60 beats per minute
bradypnea abnormally slow respiratory rate, usually less than 10 respirations per minute
cardiac output (CO) the amount of blood ejected by the heart with each venticular contraction
compliance the extent to which an individual's behavior coincides with medical or health advice
conduction the transfer of heat from one molecule to another in direct contact
constant fever a state in which the body temperature fluctuates minimally but always remains abouve normal
convection the dispersion of heat by air currents
core temperature the temperature of the deep tissues of the body. when measured orally, the average body temperature of an adult is between 36.7 C and 37 C (98 F and 98.6F)
costal (thoracic) breathing movement of the chest upward and outward
Diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathing breathing that involves the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm, as observed by the movement of the abdomen
diastolic pressure the pressure of teh blood against the arterial walls when the ventricles of the heart are at rest
dysrhythmia a pulse with an irregular rhythm
evaporation continuous vaporization of moisture from the respiratory tract and from the mucosa of the mouth and from the skin
exhalation (expiration) breathing out, or the movement of gase from the lungs to the atmosphere
expiration (exhalation) the outflow of air from the lungs to the atmosphere
febrile pertaining to a fever; feverish
fever elevated body temperature
fever spike a temperature that rises to fever level rapidly following a normal temperature and then returns to normal within a few hours
heat balance the state a person is in when the amount of heat produced by the body exactly equals the amount of heat lost
heat exhaustion condition that is the result of excessive heat and dehydration
heat stroke life-threatening condition with body temperature greater than 106F
hematocrit the proportion of red blood cells to the total blood volume
hyperpyrexia an extremely high body temperature
hypertension an abnormally high blood pressure; over 140mmHg systolic and/or 90 mmHg diastolic
hyperthermia a body temperature above the usual range.
hyperventilation very deep, rapid respirations
hypotension an abnormally low blood pressure; less than 100mmHg systolic in an adult
hypothermia a core body temperature below the lower limit of normal
hypoventilation very shallow respirations
inhalation the intake of air into the lungs
insensible heat loss heat loss that occurs from evaporation of moisture from the repiratory tract, mucosa of the mouth and the skin
insensible water loss continuous and unnoticed water loss
inspiration same as inhalation
intermittent fever a body temperature that alternates at regular intervals between periods of fever and periods of normal or subnormal temperatures
korotkoff's sounds the five phases of blood pressure sounds
orthostatic hypotension decrease in blood pressure related to positional or postural changes from lying to sitting or standing posisitons
oxygen saturation the percent of all hemoglobin binding sites that are occupied by ocygen
peripheral pulse a pulse located in the periphery of the body (foot, hand, or neck)
point of maximal impulse the point where the apex of the heart touches the anterior chest wall and heart movements are most easily observed and palpated
PMI point of maximal impulse
pulse the wave of blood within an artery that is created by contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
pulse deficit the difference between the apical pulse and the radial pulse
pulse oximeter a noninvasive device that measures the arterial blood oxygen saturation by means of a sensor attached to the finger or other location
pulse pressure the difference between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressure
pulse rhythm the pattern of the beats and intervals between the beats
pulse volume the strength or amplitude of teh pulse, the force of blood exerted with each heart beat
pyrexia a body temperature above the normal range; fever
radiation the transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without contact between teh two objects
relapsing fever the occurrence of short febrile periods of a few days interspersed with periods of 1 or 2 days of normal temperature
remittent fever the occurrence of a wide range of temperature fluctuations, more than 2C over the 24-hour period, all of which are above normal
respiration the act of breathing; includes the intake of oxygen and the output of carbon dioxide from the cells to the atmosphere
respiratory character same as respiratory quality
respiratory quality refers to those aspects of breathing that are diffferent from normal, eddortless breathing, includes the amount fo effort exerted to breathe and teh sounds produced by breathing
respiratory rhythm refers to the regularity of the expirations and the inspirations
sphygmomanometer indicates the pressure of the air within the bladder
surface temperature the temperature of tissue, the subvutaneous tissue, and fat
systolic pressure the pressure of the blood against the arterial walls when the ventricles of the heart contract
tachycardia an abnormally rapid pulse rate; greater than 100 beats per minute
tachypnea abnormally fast respirations; usually more than 24 respirations per minute
tidal volume the volume of air that is normally inhaled and exhaled
ventilation the movement of air in and out of the lungs; the process of inhalation and exhalation
vital signs body temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure. Many agencies have designated pain as the fifth vital sign