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histology powerpoint

Histology powerpoint 1 epithelium

Why study Histology? It intertwines the disciplines of cell biology, biochemistry, physiology and pathology.
Histology class objectives are? 1 teach normal tissue structure and function. 2 compare normal vs pathological micro-anatomical structure and function. 3 learn basic concepts of histology ie...4 tissue types.
List the hierarchy of living things 1. atoms 2. molecules 3. cells 4. tissues 5. organs 6. organ systems 7. organisms
what is tissue? 2 OR more cells grouped together for a common function.
name the four basic tissue types. 1. epithelium 2. connective tissue 3. muscle tissue 4. Nervous tissue
How many steps involved in preparing tissue for study? six
what are the steps involved in preparing tissue? fixation, dehydration, clearing, embedding, sectioning, mounting/staining
what are the most commonly used stains in histology Hematoxylin and Eosin
Name the three embryonic Germ layers Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm
How many Embryonic Germ layers are there? three
give the four part outline of Epithelium as described in class germ layers, two forms of epithelium, its function, its classifications
What is the most abundant of the four types of tissues Connective tissue
list some of the sections that may appear on a slide. cross section, longitudinal, oblique,
Describe the each of the steps in preparing a histo slide. Fixation: treating with a chemical agent to retard alterations. 2.Dehydration with alcohol. 3.clearing with xylene makes the tissue clear. 4 embedding the tissue in paraffin. 5 cutting in Sections. 6 mounting on a slide and then staining.
What is the most common type of microscope used in histology? compound microscope is the most common. because it uses a group of lenses.
Name another type of imaging techniques for slides. Digital imagining for immediate visualization, modification, and enhancement.
Classifications of tissue based on what? the tissue layers, and the shape of the cells.
name the two types of layers of tissue. simple and stratified
what are the shapes of tissue cells? squamous, cuboidal, columnar
name the three types of simple single layered tissue. simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar.
how is the shape of the nucleus differentiated between cuboidal and columnar and squamous? Cuboidal cells have round nuclei and squamous and columnar have oval nuclei.
simple cell layering has how many layers one layer
statified tissue has how many layers of cells? more than two layers of cells.
Name three types of tissue stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, psuedostratified columnar, transitional tissues
transitonal tissue has what kinds of tissue? It has many types as the tissue changes tasks as it gets deeper.
describe pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. cilia at the top above columnar cytoplasm of pseudostratified columnarasasl cells.
name the two apical domain surface modifications and there use. microvilli common in intestines, kidneys, and cilia common in trachea, bronchi and oviduct and ear canal.
name the six functions of epithelial tissue protection, transcellular transportation, secretions, selective permeability, absorption, detection of sensations.
What is a lumen? the space between cells.
are epithelial cells vascular or avascular? avascular
Where role does the basal lamina play with epithelial cells? separates the tissue from, and allows nourishment and oxygen through from underlying connective tissue.
The three types of basal surface specializations are basal lamina, plasma membrane enfolding, hemidesmosomes.
the lateral domain(membrane) specializations reveal the presence of junctional complexes.
There are three types of junctional complexes in the lateral domain 1 occluding junctions 2 anchoring junctions 3communicating junctions.
characteristics of occluding junctions are tight impermeable barriers
characteristics of Anchoring junctions are desosomes or adherence to other cells or lamina
characteristics of communicating junctions are gap junctions where communication between cells takes place.
Basal Lamina for the boundary between epithelium and underlying connective tissue.
Plasma membrane enfolding increases surface area of the cell.
hemidesmosomes attach basal cell membrane to basal lamina
Desmosomes are weld-like junctins along the lateral cell membranes that help to resist shearing forces.
the two major groups of Glands are Exocrine and Endocrine glands.
Cytokines are signaling molecules that communicate between cells
cytokines are released by a signaling cell
Name the three effects cytokines can have on target cells autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine
autocrine cytokrines do what when released stimulate the cell that released them.
Paracrine cytokines the target cells is located in the vicinity so don't have to enter the vascular system for distribution.
endcrine cytokine signaling has to travel far and thus is transported by blood or the lymph system.
Exocrine glands secrete their products via ducts on the external or internal epithelial surface from which they originate.
unicellular exocrine glands are the simplest forms of exocrine glands
a primary example of a unicellular exocrine gland is the goblet cell
the number of Exocrine glands are unicellular and multicellular.
Multicellular exocrne glands exist as organized clusters of secretory units.
Exocrine glands are catagorized by three things the nature of secretion, the mode of secretion and the numbe of cells.
The three modes of secretion of exocrines holocrine, merocrine, apocrine
halocrine secretes as they mature they become the secretory product.
exocrine glands secrete their products via a duct to the surface of their epithelial 0rigin.
merocrine glands secretions occur via exocytosis, as a result neither cell membrane nor cytoplasm becomes part of the secretion.
apocrine glands are thought to secrete... a small portion of the apical cytoplasm with the secretory product.
Endocrine glands are ductless thus release directly into the bloodstream or the lymphatic system.
Regarding ducts the endocrine gland is which? and the exocrine is which? endocrine is ductless, exocrine has ducts.
the major endocrine glands are superarenal(adrenal), pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, ovaries, testes, placenta
Secretory cells are arranged in two ways as cords of cells or in a follicular arrangement. Cord type being the most common.
the arrangement of the cord type form anastomosing cords around capillaries or blood sinusoids. ie: pituitary gland
Whereas Follicular cells arrange to surround a cavity that receives and stores the seceted hormone. ie thyroid gland
Created by: peterabroad