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World Musics

Nhac Tai Tu type of chamber music ensemble from S. Vietnam; amateur instrumentalists who play more for their own enjoyment than others
Piphat classical ensemble from Thailand characterized by the use of melodic and rhythmic percussion and a double-reed aerophone
Khru Thai teacher; linguistically associated with word “guru” found in Hinduism
Ramayana Indian mythological epic about Hindu god Rama found throughout South and SE Asia
Khaen bamboo free-reed mouth organ from NE Thailand and Laos
Polyphonic Stratification layering of simultaneous variants of the same melody
Colotomic structure music organized into cycles defined by periodic punctuation played by a specific instrument (basis for Javanese Court Gamelan)
Pi double reed aerophone found in the piphat classical ensemble of Thailand
Palm Wine Guitar popular music style from Sub-Sarharan Africa known for its association with folk musicians who frequently played for drinks, including palm wine
Metallophone idiophone consisting of several metal bars graduated in length to produce different pitches
Maqam Arabic/Turkish mode or system of rules and expectations for composition and improv
Dastgah Persian (Iranian) mode or system of rules and expectations for composition and improv
Santur hammered zither from Persian classical tradition
Ud fretless, plucked pear-shaped lute found in Arabic music traditions and is the origin of certain lutes of Africa, Asia, and Europe
Kanun plucked zither used in Turkish and Arabic music traditions, prominent in takht ensembles
Takht Arabic music ensemble including zithers, bowed and plucked lutes, drums, aerophones, and sometimes non-traditional instruments
Khöömei throat or overtone singing from Mongolia
Sankyoku Japanese chamber ensemble, consisting of voice, koto (zither), shakuhachi (flute), and shamisen (lute)
Kabuki popular music theater form developed for Japan’s middle class in the 18th C
Tarab Arabic word for a state of emotional transformation or ecstasy achieved through music
Dhikr Suf ritual in which believers chant the name of God with the goal of entering an ecstatic state
Adhan Islamic call to prayer
Muezzin person who calls Islamic believers to worship 5x a day
Raqs Sharqi belly-dancing
Raqs balladi more traditional form of dancing
Palm Wine Guitar popular music style from Sub-Sarharan Africa known for its association with folk musicians who frequently played for drinks, including palm wine
Jali poet/praise singer and oral historian from the Mandinka of Western Africa
Kora harp-lute or bridge harp played by a jail during his poetic recitation
Mbube genre of choral performance common among migrant workers of S. Africa
Atumpan pair of large, goblet-shaped hollow logs with heads of tightly stretched animal skin
Mbira lamellophones found in Africa
Akadinda large, heavy log xylophone from Uganda that uses interlocking patterns that can approach nearly 600 bpm
Iscathamiya derivative of mbube style, means “to walk like a cat,” softer, smoother, subdued dance style
Balalaika triangle-shaped, fretted plucked lute from Russia
Flamenco Spanish musical tradition featuring vocals with guitar accompaniment, characterized by passionate singing and vibrant rhythm
Duende Spanish word meaning “passion,” which refers to an emotional quality considered essential in performances by Spanish Flamenco singers
Pibroch form of Scottish bagpipe music with an extended theme-and-variations structure
Uilleann Bagpipes bellows-driven pipes of Ireland, means “elbow”
Hurdy Gurdy chordophone common in France and Hungary that uses a wheel turned by a crank to vibrate the strings
Ululation performing of a single pitch repeatedly with glottal stops
Bagpipes reed aerophone consisting of an air bag (bellows), chanter (melody pipe), and drone pipes
Rom ethnic group originating in India characterized by a semi-nomadic lifestyle; Gypsies
Cimbalom hammered zither from E. Europe, commonly associated with Rom (gypsy) music; national instrument of Hungary
Reggae popular music from Jamaica characterized by a rhythmic emphasis on the offbeat and by politically and socially conscious lyrics
Calypso popular music from Trinidad characterized by improvised lyrics on topical and broadly humorous subject matter
Pan steel oil drum, instrument in Trinidad
Santeria African-derived animistic belief system found primarily in Cuba and USA
Clave rhythmic pattern in Salsa music, also an instrument
Guaracha Latin American ballroom dance as well as a song type emphasizing call-and-response vocal organization
Ska predecessor of reggae, Jamaican response to American rhythm and blues/rock and roll
Vaksin group of bamboo “trumpets,” each capable of playing a single note
Rastafarianism wore dreadlocks, smoking of ganga (marijuana)
Siku panpipes common among indigenous populations from Peru and throughout the andes
Bombos large drum used in sikuri performances from Peru as well as Samba music from Brazil
Totem plant, animal, or natural object used as an emblem for a person or group of people
Tango dance and associated music from Argentina
Bandoneon button-box accordion
Mariachi entertainment music from Mexico
Samba music/dance from Brazil
Capoeira dance developed from a style of martial arts created by runaway slaves in Brazil
Agogo double-bell found in W Africa and used in African-derived music
Rêco-Rêco notched scraper idiophone found in Latin American music traditions
Ginga back-and-forth motion used as a basis for capoeira dancing
Pandeiros handheld frame drum with attached cymbals used in capoeira music
Peurt a Beul unaccompanied dance song with nonsense syllables used to substitute for fiddling
Céilidh house party
Wacipi (powwow) pan-tribal American Indian event celebrating Native American identity and culture, generally also open to non-Native Americans
Conjunto popular dance music found along Texas-Mexico border in North America
Lining-out minister would read the psalm before it was sung
Semiotics the study of signs and systems of signs, including music
Poietic creator of music encodes meanings and emotions into the “neutral” composition or performance
Esthesic person listening to music interprets meaning and emotions
Ethocentrism unconscious assumption that one’s own cultural background is “normal” while that of others is “strange” or “exotic”
Ethnomusicology scholarly study of any music within its contemporary cultural
Bi-musicality researchers combine learning to play the music under study with field observation (Ki Mantle Hood)
Postmodernism de-emphasizes description and the search for absolute truth in favor of interpretation and the acceptance of the reality of truth
Canon foundational list of core composers and works every music student is expected to know
Organology study of musical instruments
Sachs-Hornbostel System standard classification system for musical instruments created by Curt Sachs and Erik M. von Hornbostel
Aerophone produces sound through air vibration
Chordophones stringed instruments (lutes, zithers, harps, lyres)
Fret bar or ridge found on chordophones that enables performers to produce different melodic pitches with consistent frequency levels
Idiophones instruments that produce sound through the instrument itself vibrating
Membranophones have a vibrating membrane
Melodic contour general direction and shape of a melody
Drone continuous or repeating sound
Text-setting rhythmic relationship of words to melody; can by syllabic (one pitch per syllable) or melismatic (more than one pitch per syllable)
Phonic Structure relationship between different sounds in a given piece; can be either monophony or some form of polyphony
Monophony music with a single melodic line
Polyphony juxtaposition or overlapping of multiple lines of music; 3 types are homophony, independent polyphony, and heterophony
Homophony multiple lines of music expressing the same musical idea in the same meter
Independent polyphony multiple lines of music expressing independent musical ideas as a cohesive whole
Heterophony multiple performers playing simultaneous variations of the same line of music
Etic perspective of a cultural outsider
Emic perspective of a cultural insider
Santur hammered zither from the Persian classical tradition. Often cited as the origin of hammered zithers found throughout Asia, N Africa, Europe, and the W Hemisphere
Zurna double-reed aerophone from Turkey, North Africa, and Greece
Baglama round-bodied lute from turkey
Polynesia collection of islands in the Pacific Ocean. Term derived from Greek- “many islands”
Didjeridu long trumpet made from a hollowed tree brance and played by Aborigines from Australia; low, rumbling drone sound
Aborigines generic term for an indigenous population, often used to describe native people of Australia
Animism belief systems in which natural phenomena as well as both animate and inanimate objects are considered to possess a spirit
Dreamtime term describing Australian aboriginal spiritual belief system and concept of creation
Melanesia islands in Pacific Ocean, means “black islands” because of darker skin pigmentation of majority of population
Portamento smooth, uninterrupted glide from one pitch to another
Pahu single-headed cylindrical membranophone from Hawaii that stands vertically on a carved footed base
Kilu small drum from Hawaii, usually made from a coconut shell with a fish skin face
Hulu pahu Hawaiian dance songs using drum accompaniment
Micronesia “tiny islands”
Sarod fretless, plucked lute from India
Caste System hierarchical system of social organization based on hereditary status at birth, found in Indai and associated with Hinduism
Raga mode or system of rules and procedures for composition and improv in Indian classical music
Bollywood India’s film industry, Bombay and Hollywood
Bhajan Hindu devotional songs from India
Bauls group of itinerant musicians from India, especially noted for their poetry
Bols mnemonic syllables corresponding to drum strokes in Indian drumming traditions
Gat skeletal melody used as a basis for improve in a raga performance of classical Indian instrumental music
Alap opening section of a raga performance in which the performer “explores” the raga
Created by: megshu