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20th Century History

14th Amendment equal protection (no racial discrimination)
15th Amendment suffrage for African American men
Urbanization moving from country to city for factory jobs - women felt compelled to vote to protect children, themselves, etc.
Nationalism desire for protection, expansion, law & order, power, and pride in one's nation (people, borders, economy, government, army, resources, history
Belle Epoch "Beautiful age" - believed we were past the age of war
Imperialism The policy of forcefully extending a nation's authority by territorial gain or by the establishment of economic and political dominance over other nations
Conference of Berlin 1884, world leaders met (except Africa) to divide control of Africa
Hegemony total control
William Randolph Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer yellow journalists - jumped to conclusions, exaggerated events, etc.
Bismarck Prime Minister of Prussia, oversaw unification of Germany, became Chancellor of Germany until Willhelm II. *practical
Willhelm II Last German Emperor *"war-minded"
Triple Alliance Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
Triple Entente France, Great Britain, Russia
First Moroccan Crisis 1905, French took over Morocco, Germany wanted it. Germans realized Austro-Hungarians were their only real alliance
Bosnian Crisis 1908, Russia wanted access to the Black Sea and Dardanelles, Ottoman Empire was vulnerable bc other empires wanted whatever they could get. Bosnia gained independence; AH wanted Bosnia, made a deal with Russia (Russia gets Dardanelles, AH gets Bosnia). Ot
Second Moroccan Crisis 1911, Alliances firmly in place
Schlieffen Plan invade France as quickly as possible through Belgium to get France to retreat, take over Paris, then move all forces to Russia. Needed France to retreat and Russia to move slowly. Russia had improved mobilization speed and they did not realize it would le
Marne Battle Germany vs. France - Schlieffen Plan gone wrong, trenches cut France in half - both sides kept digging in attempt to get around the other's flank.
Hindenberg & Luddendorf top German generals, wanted to win the war and neglected Germans' needs
Verdun battle that stopped the German offensive
Trench life trenches became more hospitable, less primitive. Both sides became more cordial to one another
Melingering faking an injury or self-inflicting wounds, refusing orders, trenchfoot, going AWOL, etc. to get out of war. Army made an example of soldiers being disobedient - lined up and shot
Total war involves all of society
Lusitania sunken ship that had many Americans on board - got U.S. involved in the war
Zimmerman Note from Germany to Mexico. Offered Mexico U.S. territory in exchange for help (wanted Mexico to distract the U.S.) Intercepted by U.S. Wilson declared war on Germany
CPI - Committee on Public Information created propaganda for the war effort.
St. Petersburg Revolution Russia, Feb. 1917 - thought if the czar stepped down, the issue would be solved, but the issue was with the monarchy itself. Nicholas II stepped down, provisional gov't created, political parties began to form.
Bolsheviks "peace, bread, and land" - leaders of the working class during the revolution
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk peace treaty btwn Russia and Central Powers (headed by Germany) Russia gave up territory, exited WWI
Wilson's 14 Points attempt to remove causes for war. *open covenants openly arrived at *freedom of the seas *no heavy reparations for the war (don't punish Germany) *countries have the right to determine their own futures (no colonization - freedom) *League of Nations estab
League of Nations collective security - no country would attack another bc the League would be against them
Clemencaeu French Prime Minister
David Lloyd George Prime Minister of GB
First German Note From Germany to President Wilson, requesting initiative for peace. Armistice to stop shooting was drafted, looked like a treaty with specific conditions to make Germany pay - Germany refused.
Weimar Republic socialist gov't with parliament in Germany, replaced imperial gov't. Did not want to fight war, willing to sign armistice.
Compiegne Armistice 1918, agreement to end fighting in WWI btwn the Allies and Germany. Marked victory for Allies, complete defeat for Germany
Paris Peace Conference Jan 1919, treaty drafted. Almost the same as the armistice
Treaty of Versailles Signed in June 1919, included War Guild Clause, which agreed to League of Nations
Red Scare fear of communism in the U.S.
19th Amendment Women's suffrage
Alexander II reformer, wanted to modernize Russia. Emancipated serfs to educate and industrialize. Very unpopular bc of his young mistress. Killed after 7th assassination attempt.
Alexander III went in opposite direction of Alexander II, drafter liberal constitution, secret police, Russification of other countries. Very popular - family-oriented, "real man"
Novgorod Volya terrorist group, including some Jews
Pogroms mob violence attacking Jews
Nicholas II invited general public to his coronation (party) - many killed in stampede. Believed in divine right, tried to do everything himself. Disbanded 3 of 4 parliaments, 4th included his people
Russo-Japanese War both wanted Korea, Russia was losing. People were fed up with war - Revolution
October Manifesto Nicholas II & his army's attempt to settle things, esp. the revolution. Signed reluctantly, included the Duma (parliament)
Rasputin had healing powers, helped Nicholas II's son with his illness and became a trusted advisor. Czar's men wanted to get rid of him bc they felt he was the problem. Eventually killed him & learned that czar was the problem.
Alexander Kerensky leader of provisional (temporary) "caretaker" gov't after Nicholas II stepped down
Petrograd Soviets worker's council established to represent the city's workers competing for control.
Bolsheviks "majority" led by Stalin, Lenin, and Trotsky
Mensheviks "minority" other party competing for power
Red Army (Bolsheviks) seized control in October Revolution, promised elections and went through with it, but elected officials were sent home when they did not get majority. Attacked any disloyal to communists.
White Army Generals and rich, formed to compete Red Army. White army lost
NEP - New Economic Policies issued by Lenin, re-intoduction of capitalism
Cheka, NKVD, KGB Soviet Secret Police, used terrorism as part of policy
Karl Marx wanted to build Socialism base - relationship btwn workers and employers (exploitation)
Trotsky wanted international of communism - comintern. Smarter, but not as political/likeable.
Stalin disagreed with Trotsky. Became leader - dictator until 1953 (death), tried to dictate terms of relationships with party members
5-year Plan 1928-32, aggressive industrialization to show capitalist world that communists could do it too. Sacrificed quality for quantity
Collectivization initiative to create large-scale industrial farming for peasants. Did not go as planned bc peasants were ignorant
"25-thousanders" to persuade peasants to join collectivization. Failed, so they used force. Widespread resistance - peasants began killing their crops - famine.
The Great Purges Stalin's getting rid of everyone who disagreed with him.
Speculation buing huge amounts of land for cheap, put condos on it and sell as smaller sections, Built skyscrapers to make money. Assumed people would pay to rent space.
Desparity of Wealth 5% of Americans controlled 60% of wealth - increased gap btwn rich and poor
Hoover declared poverty would end by the end of his term. U.S. was an industrial giant, but poverty rate was 40%. Hoover was often blamed for poor conditions
Hawley-Smoot Tariff tax on imports to stimulate purchase of domestic goods
FDR used deficit spending to stimulate the economy bc corporations could not or would not
NRA - National Recovery Administration passed by FDR. Gave money, etc.
TVA - Tennessee Valley Authority to build hydroelectric dams for electricity
CCC - Civilian Conservation Corporation Put young men to work. Rode trains between towns looking for work. Invested in infrastructure.
First 100 Days FDR saved U.S. economy during first 100 days of his presidency
Court-Packing Scheme added more justices to tip balance to democrats. Effort failed, but the threat had been made. Started passing more legislation
Wagner Act protection of labor unions
Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage, overtime, child labor laws, etc.
Beer Hall Putsch 1923, failed attempt by Hitler to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, and Germany
Mein Kampf Hitler's plan for government, written while he was in jail. Became popular & he decided to get involved in legitimate politics.
National Socialist Party Nazi Party, called socialist to appeal to public. Hitler joined but never held office
Anti-Semitism prejudice toward Jews, Hitler encouraged this with his oratorical skills.
President Vonhindenberg brought Hitler into German gov't so he could keep an eye on him and bc he thought he wouldn't want to be in gov't once he realized how difficult it would be.
Francisco Franco Spanish leader of Socialist republic gov't. Formed army - March on Madrid - began Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War Republic vs. Fascism. Hitler helped Franco (fascist), Republic gov't fell, Franco got power and stayed neutral in WWII
Alexander Nevsky issued propaganda to warn against Germans. Worked with Einstein, who was better known
U.S. Neutrality Acts 1935-passed, Nye commission revealed corporations had pushed U.S. into war to profit from it. Roosevelt saw Europe going to war and worried about U.S. involvement.
Luftwaffe German airforce. Lent by Hitlet to help fight against Spain
Abraham Lincoln Brigade voluntary American groups to fight for democracy in Spain (since U.S. was neutral)
Rape of Nanking 1937, Japan blew up their own bridge and blamed China for reason to attack China. Brutal rape and murder of over 250,000
Anschluss 1938, united Germany and Austria (Austria became province of Germany)
Sudetenland part of Checkoslovakia. Hitler wanted it and part of Poland. Was in a position to demand it or threaten war.
Munich Accords appeasement to Hitler's demands. Wanted Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. Germany, France, Britain, and Italy allowed it with promise that all future differences would be resolved through consultation.
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact treaty of nonagression btwn Germany and Soviet Union. Pledged to remain neutral if either nation was attacked by a third party.
Hitler invasion of Poland 1939, one week after Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Ended with Germany and Soviet Union dividing and annexing Poland
Blitzkrieg "lightning war" German war tactic to force concentration of tanks, infantry, artillery, air power, etc. at overwhelming force and high speed to break through enemy lines and attack, making it difficult for enemy to respond effectively.
Battle of Britain air force war btwn GB and Germany. Considered Germany's first major defeat and a turning point in the war.
Maginot Line line of defense by France around borders with Germany
Operation Barbarossa 1941, German invasion of Soviet Union. Failed, leading to Hitler's demands for more operations in USSR, all eventually failed.
Cash and Carry revised Neutrality Acts, allowing sale of materials by U.S., provided that buyer paid in cash and transported materials themselves.
Lend-Lease program of U.S. supplying Allied powers with war materials btwn 1941-1945. Signed into law before U.S. entrance into the war
Petain French officer, didn't wanted to fight Nazis bc he thought French were going to lose, so joined Nazis. (Others did the same)
Attack on Pearl Harbor intended as a preventative measure by Japanese to keep U.S. from interfering with military actions Japan was planning in SE Asia. Shocked U.S. and led to entry into WWII
Four Freedoms U.S. war aims *freedom of speech *freedom from fear *freedom from want *freedom of worship
Naval Battles-U.S. vs. Japan Battle of Coral Sea, Battle of Midway - ended Japanese Navy. Japan resorts to terrorism
Higgins Boat used to get U.S. men on shore in Germany bc they invaded on the beach
D-Day June 6,1944 - Massive marine invasion of Allies on Germany. German army was not ready
Battle of the Bulge major German offensive toward enf of WWII, failed.
VE-Day Victory in Europe Day - May 7, 1945 - Germany surrenders unconditionally
Trinity Test first Nuclear weapon test of atomic bomb by U.S. Army in a desert in New Mexico
Leo Szilard Hungarian physicist who conceived nuclear chain rxn, patented nuclear reactor, wrote letter for Einstein that resulted in Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project 1941-45, to build atomic bomb. Scientists didn't realize it was a weapon, thought it was a new technology. Stalin knew about it
Robert Oppenheimer led the Manhattan Project
Hiroshima August 6, 1945 - dropped without warning in effort to get Japanese to surrender unconditionally
Nagasaki August 9, 1945 - second bomb dropped. Japan offerred surrender if emperor's life could be spared - denied.
Surrender of Japan September 2, 1945 - formal surrender, emperor's life was spared
General Chiang Kai-Shek established nationalist party in China. Forced communist party to retreat (Chiang's army was more successful)
Chinese Civil War Communists vs. nationalists. Nationalists won, forced retreat
The Long March massive military retreat of Red Army (communist party) ~8000 miles. Only 10% of army remained after.
Mao Zedong became a hero, more popular than Chiang in China - won hearts and minds of population
OSS Office of Strategic Services - U.S. spies in China, felt Chiang wasn't doing his part.
Syngman Rhee leader of S.Korea (non-communist)
Kim Il-Sung leader of N.Korea
People's Republic of China 1949, communist gov't established under Mao Zedong. Chiang forced to flee
General Assembly & U.N. Security Council U.S., G.B., China, U.S.S.R., France. Boycotted by U.S.s.R. bc U.S. recognized Chiang's gov't insteaf of Mao's
Korean War mostly American troops to restore 38th parallel in Korea
McArthur wanted to liberate N.Korea and unify Korea
Eisenhower Promises to go to Korea and does so when elected
Created by: mmmcla01