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Med Term - Last few

A brief review of the last few sections for med term at IC

crin/o to secrete
Endocrine System System of glands throughout the body that directly release chemicals directly into the blood stream (ductless)
Types of Endocrine Glands -Pituitary Gland -Thyroid Gland -Adrenal Glands -Pancreas
Pituitary Gland Master gland (regulates all other endocrine glands)
Pituitary Gland Hormones Anterior -Somatotropin -Gonadotrophic Hormone Posterior -Anti-diuretic Hormone (ADH)
Somatotropin Growth Hormone -released during childhood/puberty
Hypersecretion of Somatotropin (Before Puberty) Results in Gigantism -caused by an Adenoma
Hypersecretion of Somatotropin (After Puberty) Results in Acromegaly (enlarged extremities) -hyper pituitarism
Hyposecretion of Somatotropin Results in Dwarfism -congenital
Achondroplastic dwarf Premature closure of epiphyseal plate (causing short, thick arms & legs) -early ossification -lordosis -pretruding forehead
Gonadotrophic Hormones Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) -stimulates growth of ovaries & testes
ADH Anti-diuretic Hormone -Stimulate reabsorption of H2O via kidney tubules; keeps us hydrated
Diabetes Insipidus Great deal of H2O is dilute -polyuria -polydypsia
Oxytoxin Helps stimulate labor, contractions & milk production
Thyr/o, Thyroid/o Thyroid Gland (needs Iodine to work properly) -largest gland (located below the larynx) -regulates heat & NRG -maintains metabolism
Thyromegaly AKA Goiter -Iodine deficiency
Hyperthyroidism Excessive production of the thyroid gland -hot flashes
Grave's Disease a cause of hyperthyroidism
Exophthalmos Cause of hyperthyroidism -Bulging eyeballs
Thyrotoxicosis Cause by hyperthyroidism -thyroid becomes toxic to itself
Thyroid Storm Severe hyperthyroidism -hyperpyrexia, respiratory distress, coma
Hypothyroidism Lack of production of the thyroid gland
Myxedema Swelling of mucus due to hypothyroidism -dry, puffy skin due to mucus collect under skin
Cretinism -Common in children -Lack normal men. & phys. capacity
Adrenal Glands Suprarenal -secretes Epinephrine, Androgens, & Estrogens
Epinephrine AKA Adrenaline -Fight or Flight -^HR, ^BP, ^constriction, dilate bronchi
Norepinephrine Drug released to counter act epinephrine
Androgens Hormone that increases Male secondary sex characteristics
Virilism Excessive masculine characteristics (caused by tumor) -Amenorrhea, hair growth, deep voice
Hirsutism Excessive hair (M & F)
Estrogen Hormone that increases Female secondary sex characteristics
Pancreas Produces Insulin, Glucagon, & Somatostatin
Insulin helps to metabolize sugars
Glucagon ^ blood sugar, produces enzymes to break down fat
Diabetes Mellitus -lacks insulin for carb. & sugar metabolism -prevent sugar from exiting blood
Type I Diabetes Mellitus Insulin dep. -Insulin deficient -needs insulin injections
Type II Diabetes Mellitus Insulin Ind. -too much sugar -can be controlled by diet/loss of weight
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes during pregnancy -goes away after delivery
Primary Complications of Diabetes Mellitus 1. Hyperglycemia 2. Hypoglycemia 3. Ketoacidosis 4. Glycouria
Secondary Complications of Diabetes Mellitus 1. Diabetic Retinopathy 2. Diabetic Nephropathy 3. Diabetic Neuropathy 4. Atherosclerosis
NPH Neutral Protamine Hadedrom Insulin -trade name for insulin
ADA American Diabetic Association
GTT Glucose Tolerance Test -checks blood/urine for glucose
TFT Thyroid Function Tests -blood test: looking at T3-T4 lvls
Radioactive Iodine Uptake Oral, low does, radioactive Iodine intake
Thyroid Scan Look at radioactive compounds administered in thyroid, uptake in thyroid -Ultra sound: size, shape, nodules
derm/o, dermat/o, cutane/o, cut/o Skin
Function of the skin 1. Protection- water loss, heat, invasion 2. Sensory- pain, temp, pressure, touch 3. Thermoregulation - sweat glands
Layers of the skin 1. Epidermis 2. Dermis 3. Subcutaneous Tissue
Epidermis First layer of the skin 1. Stratum corneum (most superficial) 2. basal layer (deepest layer)
Melanocytes Helps to determine pigment of skin (more melanocytes->darker skin)
Albino -No melanocytes; born (partial or total) -extremely clear skin -prone to skin cancer -photophobia (fear of natural light)
Melanoma Malignant neoplastin that starts out in melanocyte Look at: a. Assymetric b. Border (Irregular) c. Color d. Diameter
Dermis Contains fibrous CT, blood vessels, lymph nodes, nerves, hair, sweat glands
Subcutaneous Area of fat formation -Lip/o -Adip/o
Accessory structures of the skin -Hair -Nails -Sweat glands -Cutaneous Lesions -Symptoms -Abnormal conditions
trich/o, pil/o Hair
Pilomotor reflex Erection of Hair (due to color, emotion, skin irritation)
Alopecia Hair loss
Onych/o, Ungu/o Nails
Onychogryposis Thickened, curved over fingers & toe nail ex. elder abuse & elder neglect
Onychophagia onychophagist Biting your nails
Subungual Hematoma Bruise/blood clot beneath nail due to trauma
Onychoclasis Nails break
Onychotomy Cutting Nails
Sweat Glands Tiny coiled tubules/glands pores=sweat glands 1. Apocrine 2. Eccrine 3. Sebaceous
Apocrine Sweat glands -large in size, auxillary
Eccrine Sweat Gland -smaller, helps dissipate hair found in palms of hand, soles of feet
Hidr/o Sweat
Sebaceous Glands Oil glands; produce sebum
Comedo Blackheads
Acne zits, pus
Lesions Area of damaged tissue caused by disease/trauma
Cutaneous Lesions -Cyst -Fissure -Macule -Papule -Polyp -Pustule -Ulcer -Vesicle -Wheal -Bullae
Cyst lesion filled/semi solid thick walled bump
Fissure lesion deep slit, groove
Macule lesion discoloration ex. freckle
Papule lesion small elevation of skin
Polyp lesion benign growth extending from the unctuous membrane surface
Pustule lesion pus-filled sac/lesion
Ulcer lesion Open sore on skin/mucus membrane (eating away)
Vesicle lesion clear-fluid filled (elevation of skin); blister
Wheal smooth, slight elevated, edema ex. mosquito bite, hives
Bullae lesion Large vesicle (boil)
Symptoms -Ecchymosis -Petechia -Pruritus -Purpura -Urticaria -Vitiligo
Ecchymosis Bruise
Petechia Small, pinpoint hemorrhaging
Pruritus Itchy/Itching
Purpura Merging of Ecchymosis & Petechia
Urticaria Acute allergic reaction; arising of wheals
Vitiligo Loss of pigmentation of skin; White chalky patches; Leukodermia (caused by diabetes, thyroid condition) ex. michael jackson
Abnormal Conditions of the skin -Burns -Cellulitis -Eczema -Gangrene -Impetigo -Psoriasis -Scabies -Scleroderma -Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) -Tinea -Callus -Keloid -Keratosis -Nevus -Verruca -Malignant melanoma -basal cell carcinoma -Squamous cell carcinoma
Burns -caused by chemicals, radiation, heat, gases -degrees depend on lvl of penetration
1st degree burn Erythema (redness of skin) -effects epidermis -hyperesthesia/hyperalgesia
2nd degree burn "Partial thickness burn" epidermis & dermis -blisters 7-21 days
3rd degree burns "Full thickness burn" -All skin layers -anesthetic/analgesia/hypoesthesia -scared, poor textured
Eschar dead skin that falls off after healthy skin forms
Rule of Nines Body divided into areas of 9%, in which burns occur
Cellulitis Acute bacterial infection of skin
Eczema Inflammatory skin disorder, redness, palpullae
Gangrene Death of tissue due to lack of blood supply; ischemia
Impetigo Bacterial infection; fluid filled lesions to skin, filled w pus, crusts over, caused by staph/strep
Psoriasis -Chronic cond. of skin, near joint areas -itchy, scaly, red patches, silvery scales -^growth of basal layer of epidermis
Scabies Contagious, caused by parasite infection -found in children & sexual contact
Scleroderma Chronic/progressive -disease of CT in skin; shrinking/hardening of tissue & skin -binds body down, skin pulls on organs
SLE Systemic Lupus Erthematosis -Chronic inflammatory disease -affects collagen in skin, joints, organs -butterfly shape lesion on face -common in females
Tinea Capitus Ringworm of head or scalp
Tinea Cruris Fungal infection of groin
Tinea Pedis "Athelete's Foot" =Fungal Infection of foot
Callus ^ scale/skin due to pressure/friction
Keloid Hypertrophed area due to trauma or surgical incision (excessive collagen formation)
Keratosis Cond. w. benign thick lesion/area of skin due to excessive exposure to sun
Nevus Mole
Verruca Warts
Malignant Melanoma Follow's ABCD's -due to sun exposure -Cancerous growth of melanocyte -metastasis to lymph nodes, liver, lung, brain
Basal Cell Carcinoma Affects deepest layer of skin (non-metastasizing)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma Affects squamous cells (metastasis to lymph nodes)
Cryosurgery Freezing to do surgery
Skin Biopsy Taking skin tissue to be tested
Punch Biopsy Taking skin sample from middle of lesion, take core to lab
Patch Test Take arm, warp in gauze with allergens, see if it affects
Scratch Test Take arm, take needle, scratch skin w allergen, see if it affects
Intradermal Test Take arm, put allergen under skin
Emollient Skin softener
Antipruritic Anti-itching
Antiseptic applied to living tissue to clean
Keratolytics Breaking down keratin layer
Skin patch transdermal system of medication delivery
Created by: GThatvi1