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Urinalysis Process

Urinalysis testing and results

Specific Gravity Concentration of urine. Weight of substances in the urine. Assessed by comparing the SG of urine with distilled water. Normal: 1.003-1.035. False High: glycosuria or proteinuria, because of the increased concentration. False Low: alkalinity.
Nitrite The presence of nitrites in fresh urine indicate bacterial growth. False Pos: May be caused by bacterial growth in an old urine specimen or specimen placed in a container found around the hours. False Neg: urine that is abnormal in color.
Ketones Incomplete fatty acid metabolism and when glucose is limited. Starvation, severe vomiting, diarrhea or Pg are present. False Pos: highly pigmented urine . False Neg: May occur if bacteria present in the urine and the specimen is not tested immed.
Blood Hemolyzed/non-hemolyzed. Bleeding into part of urinary tract.Trauma, UTI, renal disease, renal stones. False Pos: menstrual blood, oxidizing compounds, or peroxidase produced by microbes. False Neg: formalin, excess nitrates, elevated SG or some drugs
Glucose Diabetes mellitus. False Pos: This test is specific for glucose, meaning no other compound cause a positive result. False Neg: May be caused by an excess of ascorbic acid, elevated SG, or a high level of ketones.
Bilirubin Hepatitis, liver sclerosis, or obstructive jaundice. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. False Pos:Intensely colored urine or certain drugs. False Neg: Excess ascorbic acid and large amounts of nitrite. Light exposure decreases.
Protein Renal dis.Sm amt phys or emot stress,early renal dis.Sm to mod UTI, kidney stones or acute renal dis.Lg amt adv renal dis; nephrotic syndrome and chronic glomerulonephritis. False Pos:contaminants or high pH level. False Neg:High salt levels. Globulins
pH (parts hydrogen) Acid or alkaline(pH scale of 0-14 0 highest acidity and 14 highest alkalinity or basic). Average pH urine is from 5.0 to 7.0. Indicates kidneys’ ability to maintain normal hydrogen ion concentration and may vary with diet.
Leukocytes White blood cells in urine. UTIs. Infection of the kidney, bladder or urethra. False Pos: vaginal contaminants False Neg: drugs elevated glucose, high SG or oxalic acid can interfere with the chemical reaction even if WBC are present in the urine.
Urobilinogen Normally, bilirubin is converted to urobilinogen by bacteria and excreted in the feces and urine. Elevated urobilinogen may indicate disease or dysfunction of the heart, spleen or liver.
Urine pregnancy test (HCG) Tests for presence of HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), and is usually a qualitative test for a negative or positive result:
Parts of Urinalysis Physical, Chemical, Microscopic
Supernatant fluid Liquid portion of urine discarded after centrifuging
Urine sediment Remainder of solid particles remaining after centrifuging urine that is viewed under the microscope.
Created by: cskinner