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Fine Arts Final

rules or generally recognized principles for how an art form is made and understood; generally accepted practice, technique or device convention
a general category characterized by a particular style, form or content genre
the arrangement of line, form, mass, texture and color; also the arrangement of the technical qualities of any art form composition
Used by artists to control our vision, to create unity and emotional value. It can be actual or implied, curved or straight line
Closely related to line, both in definition and effect. Form is the shape of the object(s) within the composition. Form is the space described by line (has dimension) form
The appearance of surfaces in terms of hue (the color itself) value (the range of tonalities from white to black) and intensity (the degree of purity of hue) color
With 3-dimensional form the physical bulk. With 2-dimensional objects, it is the illusion of weight mass
Apparent roughness/smoothness of the surface of a work of art texture
Reiteration of the basic elements within a work of art repetition
the relationship, either of time or space between recurring elements within a design or composition rhythm
the logic of the repetition or combination harmony
a feeling of a comfortable relationship between elements consonance
Any harsh disagreement between elements of composition dissonance
The method of altering the basic elements of composition variation
The placement of physically or psychologically equal items on either side of a central axis; the compositional equilibrium of opposing forces balance
The balancing of elements in design by placing physically equal objects on both sides of the central axis. Absolute symmetry is very rare, but we often in arranging space approach the idea of symmetry symmetry
The balancing of elements in design by placing dissimilar objects or forms on both sides of the central axis, but with a sense of an equality of weight. Often called “psychological balance asymmetrical
The combination of all the elements in such as way as to suggest a completeness or undivided total effect unity
To show or bring out noticeable differences when elements are compared or placed side by side contrast/juxtaposition
It can be suggested or actual. In two-dimensional art, movement is suggested to give the illusion of action. In three-dimensional art, actual movement occurs in threedimensional objects and forms moving through space to create meaning movement
It can be suggested or actual. In two-dimensional art, light is suggested to give shapes an illusion of dimensionality. In three-dimensional art, actual light reveals three-dimensionality and creates meaning light
styles of construction and ornamentation first used in Greek buildings; adopted by the Romans; most easily identified by the capitals; commonly used today as historical references Greek orders
a decorative structure at the top of a column; this design is the easiest way to identify the Greek orders capital
the simplest of the Greek orders; the capital includes a round pillow-like stone topped by a flat, rectangular stone Doric
a Greek order; the capital consists of large scrolls Ionic
the most complex Greek order; the capital includes stylized leaves and scrolls Corinthian
a structural system with a post spanned by a single piece (e.g. stone columns spanned by a single piece of stone); in wood this is called post and beam post-and-lintel
a free-standing vertical structural support column
the vertical grooves carved into columns fluting
a curved structure that spans an opening arch
an arch in the shape of a half circle; widely used by the Romans and again in the middle ages (identified then as Romanesque) Roman arch
a pointed arch. Developed in the middle ages Gothic arch
a series of arches side by side arcade
a series of arches, one behind the next, that enclose a space, producing an arched ceiling vault
the simplest of vaults, a continuous arched ceiling, with either round or pointed arches tunnel vault
occurs where two tunnel vaults of the same size intersect at a right angle groin vault
a structure that encloses space by using a series of continuous arches on a continuous round base dome
a structural method in which the building is held up by the outside walls, which must be thick and strong bearing-wall construction
a modern structural method that holds up a building with an internal frame of steel; the walls do not hold up the building as in earlier structural systems steel cage construction
an overhanging structure supported only on one side cantilever
the front of a building, often given special architectural design facade
the pattern of windows in a building fenestration
building size as compared to the human body scale
comparative size of parts of a building measured against other parts of the building proportion
stone, brick, masonry (brick or stone held together by mortar, a substance similar to concrete), concrete, wood, steel, glass materials
A highly collaborative art form that is an aesthetic expression through the manipulation of 3 dimensional space, time, light, movement, and sound that is recorded on a 2 dimensional photographic celluloid medium film
Films that tell stories – with characters, places and events – conceived in the minds of the films creators. The stories may be wholly imaginary or based on true occurrences, realistic or unrealistic or both narrative film
nonfiction film, "actuality" footage that usually shows a certain point of view documentary film
created for artistic experience, Film that exists for its own sake, for its record of movement or form. (short) absolute film
The categorization of narrative films by form, content or both. Genres include musical, comedy, biography, western, film noir, etc. film genres
The smallest building block in the creation of a film. It is a recorded image, a photograph, that is roughly four fifths on an inch wide by three fifths of an inch high. It is run through a projector at 24 frames per second frame
(how eye percieves it) This phenomenon, in conjunction with the stop and go shutter mechanism on a film projector, allows the retained images to blend into each other and give the viewer the impression of movement. persistence of vision
What the camera records over a particular period of time, and is the basic unit of filmmaking shot
A long shot introduced at the top of a scene to establish the interrelationship of details, a time, or a place which will be elaborated on in subsequent shots establishing shot
A single shot of the entire action of a scene. It becomes the foundation to which additional component shots are edited into in the creation of the final composition of a scene master shot
A shot taken from a considerable distance from the camera. Generally, the main characters or objects fill up less than half the screen long shot
A shot that is taken closer to the subject and much of the time contains two characters. Generally, the main characters or objects fill up about half the screen medium shot
A shot that focuses on the face of a character and informs the viewer of their current emotional state. Generally, the main characters or objects fill up more than half the screen close up shot
The position and angle of the camera while shooting camera viewpoint
This is where the camera’s viewpoint creates the illusion of being inside of the action of the story, as if seen through the eyes of one of the films characters subjective viewpoint
This is where the camera’s viewpoint is from outside the action of the story, giving the viewer an omniscient frame of understanding objective viewpoint
Transitional devices used between shots dissolves
A transition that allows for a second of darkness between shots fade in/fade out
A transition where a Fade in and Fade out happen simultaneously lap dissolve
A transition that closes the shot down to a circular point or opens out from a circular point iris in/iris out
A device that uses a line to shift from one shot into another. It also can allow two scenes to happen at the same time wipe
Composition of the individual frame – the overall style and arrangement of the visual whole that includes the settings, costumes, the relationship of objects, people and masses; the interplay of light and shadow and the pattern of color mise en scene: (MEEZ on sen)
The manner in which the lens is adjusted can add meaning to a scene focus
This is when the lens clearly shows both near and distant objects at the same time depth of focus
This occurs when the lens focuses on the main object of interest clearly and the remainder of the scene is blurred or out of focus rack or differential focus
There are 3 types of movement that can be manipulated for a variety of meanings in a scene: primary, secondary and tertiary movement (cinema)
Movement of objects, people and masses within the frame of the camera primary movement
Movement of the camera while shooting secondary movement
Horizontal movement of the camera while keeping it fixed vertically pan
Vertical or diagonal movement of the camera tilt
Physically moving the camera towards or away from the subject on a wheeled cart dolly shot
a shot taken as the camera is moving in the same direction, speed and in the same place as the object being photographed track shot
The term means “camera truth” in French. It is when the camera is carried by the camera operator and used to give the illusion of immediacy, being right within the action cinemavVerite/hand held
Movement created by the splicing together (editing) of shots or frames that give a feeling of movement. A cartoon is an example of this movement tertiary movement
The quality of the medium of film to be cut, spliced and ordered accordingly to the needs of the film and the desires of the filmmaker plasticity
The composition of a film through the means of splicing together various shots and sound tracks in an order that creates meaning editing
A cut that breaks the continuity of time by jumping forward from one part of the action to another part that obviously is separated from the first by an interval of time, location or camera position jump cut
A cut from an image in a shot to a different object that has a similar shape or contour; it is used primarily to make a smoother transition from one shot to another form or match cut
A rapid sequence of shots that bring together associated ideas or images; maybe used to as an indication of the compression or elongation of time montage
Alternating between two independent lines of action that are related by plot or thematically, through editing to give the impression of simultaneous occurrence. crosscut/parallel editing
An editing device for presenting or reawakening the memory of the camera, a character, the audience or all three; a cut from the narrative present to a past event flashback
An editing device for presenting the anticipation of the camera, a character, the audience or all three; a cut from the narrative present to a future time flash forward
All aural effects to create meaning and affect emotional impact of the visual elements of film film sound
Music that comes from outside of the action of the film and underscores the emotional impact of a scene extrinsic music
Music that comes from within a scene. It can either be qualified, where the viewer sees a source, or implied based on the circumstances of the plot intrinsic music
Music specifically composed for the film pure dramatic music
Music adapted and rerecorded from already existing written music adapted music
Sounds that are added to the film after shooting to fill out the natural sounds recorded during a scene, such as gunshots, natural environmental sounds and footsteps. Named for Jack Foley (1891-1967), who developed the technique foley sounds
author of film, Their job is to unify the overall compositional elements of filmmaking into a finished form or final cut director
This person is responsible for the cinematographic properties of the shot (film, light and lenses), framing the shot in an aesthetic manner, speed and length of shot and special effects. They unify the mise en scene of a film cinematographer/director of photography
This person is responsible for all visual environments and objects within an environment of a film shot; whether the settings are found or created on a sound stage production designer
This person is responsible for all clothing worn by the actors in a film costume designer
This person works with the director to create meaning and structure through the editing of a film editor
the person who creates the script screen writer
the person who creates the script composer
The pulse of music beat
the speed of the beat tempo
The simultaneous sounding of musical pitches. When different notes sound together, they create a chord harmony
A succession of pitches in time, a logical sequence that has a beginning, middle, and end melody
very short melody that has both distinctive pitch and rhythm. Used as the building block for longer melodies motive
A regular succession or pattern of beats, most often in groups of two, three, or four meter
The specific, organized movement of music in time. While meters are generic and are used in many compositions (e.g. waltzes are in triple meter), the rhythm is the specific pattern of pitches in time that is unique to each piece rhythm
The use of a strong beat or accent when a weak beat is expected. This disturbs the normal pattern of a meter syncopation
Levels of volume and changes of volume: loud, soft, increasing (crescendo), decreasing (decrescendo) dynamics
(TAM ber) The distinctive tone quality that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another. It also is called tone color timbre
A composition for soloist(s) and orchestra or instrumental ensemble. “Concerto” literally means “contest.” It most often has three movements: fast / slow / fast concerto
1. An instrumental composition used as an introduction to a larger work, e.g., a ballet or an opera. 2. A concert overture is a single-movement instrumental composition intended as a stand-alone piece. overture
1. piece for one or two players, usually in three or four movements 2. Sonata form is a musical structure often used as the first movement of a sonata, symphony, or concerto sonata
An extended composition for orchestra or large instrumental ensemble, usually consisting of three or four movements symphony
1. A composition in a series of short movements, usually dances. 2. A composition created using musical themes from a longer work, such as an opera, ballet, or stage work suite
In opera or oratorio, a solo vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment. Usually a reflective text that does not move the plot forward aria
A vocal composition for solo voice(s), usually accompanied by piano. The text often is a setting of a poem. Art songs usually are performed in recital situations. art song
The monophonic music used in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic church. It is sung in unison, usually unaccompanied. Chant also is known as plainchant, plainsong, and Gregorian chant. chant
The liturgy of the Roman Catholic Eucharist. In music, a mass most often is a setting of the texts for the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei. The term mass used for a musical composition is not capitalized. mass
A theatrical genre in which the entire text (libretto) is set to music opera
A work, often on a religious theme, for soloists, choir, and orchestra. While most oratorios tell stories, they are not meant to be staged. oratorio
A vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitches of speech. A sung conversation or monologue that moves the story forward. A recitative often serves as an introduction to an aria. recitative
French horn, trumpet, trombone, and tuba brass
Any instrument that is sounded by striking. Pitched percussion includes, e.g., tympani and mallet instruments. Unpitched percussion includes, e.g., cymbals, triangle, snare drum, and bass drum. The piano also is considered a percussion instrument. percussion
Violin, viola, cello, and bass. The guitar and harp also are string instruments strings
Most commonly the flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and saxophone woodwinds
The female voice with the highest range soprano
The female voice with the lowest range alto
The male voice with the highest range tenor
The male voice with the lowest range bass
One melody of primary interest with background accompaniment. homophony
A single, unaccompanied melodic line monophony
Two or more independent melodic lines of equal interest sounding together. polyphony
Series of closely related events plot
live actor in same space as audience live actor
formal theatre space or informal such as garage, basement, street corner theatrical space
actors and audience react to each other theatrical event
audience is able to fully immerse themselves in the story taking place on stage; accepting improbability within the framework of the work of art suspension of disbelief
series of closely related events; story structure plot
people of the play, vehicle thru which the story is told character
theme, message, moral, central idea playwright is trying to get across thought
language of the play: imagery, tone, and articulation diction
all sound; rhythm of sounds and vocal tones, music music
all visual aspects of the production spectacle
a stage framed by a large rectangular arch that divides playing space from audience (house) proscenium
stage that thrusts into audience area and is surrounded on three sides by seats. thrust
stage is surrounded on all sides by seats arena
flexible space that can be configured for requirements of the production black box
Oldest form of recorded drama; serious play with protagonist of high social stature who has a tragic flaw tragedy
a play with a serious intent, but not the universal significance of tragedy; usually people of everyday type, but ending is often unhappy or at least serious drama
a funny play often about serious human conflict comedy
stereotypical and sentimental drama melodrama
play written purely for entertainment farce
play combining dialogue, music, and often, dance musical
how a play is organized dramatic structure
background information; introduces the characters, situation and problem exposition
drama requires conflict; mechanism by which a situation becomes dramatic; this begins with an inciting incident. conflict or complication
the moment of maximum tension in the play when the primary conflict is resolved climax
resolution of the conflict; new harmony or understanding has been reached denouement: (DAY noo mah)
things happen on stage faster than they do in life and audience accepts this dramatic time
principal character in a dramatic action protagonist
the character who opposes the action antagonist
vision of the entire production formulated and shared by the director concept or production approach
the author of the script playwright
plays that present life in a realistic manner; characters talk to each other without regard for the audience representational
characters deliver the material out to the audience in a less than realistic manner presentational
style of theatre in which design and approach to the play is heightened and not necessarily a historical representation; style is removed from observable reality theatricality
To behave truthfully under an imaginary set of circumstances acting
Major movement on stage, usually predetermined and set by the director blocking
Small actions performed by each character, necessary for specifically defining each character and for creating reality on stage stage business
A speech wherein a character verbalizes his/her thoughts aloud while alone soliloquy
presentational in intent, meaning that the character(s) acknowledge the presence of the audience by speaking directly to them direct performance
A speech wherein a character expresses his/her thoughts in words audible to the audience but supposedly unheard by the other characters on stage aside
The imaginary wall between the actors and the audience fourth wall
the building in which theatre takes place theater
the production of drama theatre
the literature of theatre; scripts drama
a round dancing place before the stage. The chorus performed there orchestra
a winged building behind the stage and in front of the actors. It may have had a painted backdrop. It is the origin of our word scene. skene
a winged building behind the stage and in front of the actors. It may have had a painted backdrop. It is the origin of our word scene. buskin
one of the songs which the chorus performed between episodes. ode
dialogue consisting of alternating single lines spoken by two characters. It was used in Greek tragedy to show tenses disputes. Modern writers like Shakespeare use versions of it. (banter) stychomythia
irony that results when characters say or do something of greater significance than they realize. The audience’s knowledge is superior to that of the character(s).. dramatic irony
lifting actors deus ex machina
a choral ode honoring the god Dionysus. A chorus of singers dressed as satyrs performed episodes from myths. The dithyramb evolved into tragedy dithyramb
a choral ode honoring the god Dionysus. A chorus of singers dressed as satyrs performed episodes from myths. The dithyramb evolved into tragedy tetralogy and trilogy
a parody of a myth. The final part of the tetralogy in Athenian dramatic competitions satyr
according to Aristotle, an error of judgment that causes the downfall of a tragic protagonist. hamartia
the resolution of the plot of a tragedy, depicting the final downfall of the protagonist. catastrophe
according to Aristotle, the purging of pity and fear that tragedy causes in viewers catharsis
toward the audience. So called because stages used to be slightly sloped downstage
away from the audience upstage
necessary or convenient features of literature which audiences unquestioningly accept. An example from drama is the “fourth wall” convention
The way in which an artist organizes forms, line, mass, and color in an art work (art) composition
A long thin mark, a color edge, or an implication of continuation of a thin mark or color edge line
Art that maintains the appearance of observable reality representational art
Art in which there can be found no clear reference to observable reality. Non-objective art is abstract but not all abstract art is non-objective non-objective art
Art that 1) emphasizes only stylized representation of visible reality or 2) is totally non-objective. This differs from non-objective art in that it can contain symbolic or stylized references to objects found in the natural world abstract art
A way of analyzing the picture or sculpture, a continuum from observable reality, to an altered-but-still-visible reality, to elimination of any recognizable object. representation/distortion/abstraction
The art of ancient Greece and Rome classical art
A sense of equilibrium among all parts of an art work. Balance can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. balance
A sense of movement or energy in an art work. dynamics
A composition that allows the eye to escape the frame. In sculpture this is also a reference to sculptures that contain negative space (openings) open form
A composition where the eye is continually drawn back inside the frame or back to the sculpture. Also refers to sculptures with little negative space closed form
The manner in which various components of the artwork are joined together articulation
A paint used since ancient times that mixes color pigments in an egg yoke or gum binder. This is the paint traditionally used in frescoes and works on paper. tempera
A painting medium invented at the beginning of the 1400’s in which the pigments are suspended in oil, often a linseed oil. oil
A transparent type of paint made from pigment in a water-soluble binder. watercolors
A synthetic paint invented in the 20th century that is water-soluble but that also dries very quickly and dries nearly as hard as rubber or plastic acrylic
A painting done directly on the plaster of a wall. The most stable frescoes are done directly onto wet plaster, allowing the paint to dry into the wall. fresco
A technique for creating depth in two-dimensional art by making parts of a single form that is “closer” to the viewer larger than the parts of a form that are further away. foreshortening
The use of gradations of light and dark to produce the effect of modeling (three-dimensionality) in drawn or painted forms chiaroscuro
Sculptures that can be viewed from any side and stand independent of any wall full round
Sculptures that emerge from a larger background but are still attached to it, intended to be viewed from one side only relief sculpture
Sculptures that emerge far from the background high relief sculpture
Sculptures that barely emerge from the background, such as on coins. low relief sculptures
Sculptures made by carving away material to create the form subtraction
Sculptures that are built. The elements are put together or assembled to create the sculpture, for example, pieces of steel welded together adition or construction
Sculptures that are cast with molten material being poured into a mold and then hardening to create the final form substitution
Sculptures constructed from long thin materials such as wire or neon tubes. linear (sculpture)
The shaping of material, such as clay, by hand to create the form. manipulation
Sculptures meant to last only for a short time ephemeral
A chemical treatment applied purposely to a sculpture to create a color or texture, or to protect the art from the elements (bronze) patina
Created by: jenks14