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LOM Terms Chap3

Terms to practice spelling and learn meaning

hernia a protrusion of an organ or the muscular wall of an organ through the cavity that normally contains it.
hiatal hernia occurs when the stomach protrudes upward into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm
inguinal hernia occurs when part of the intestine protrudes downward into the groin region and commonly into the scrotal sac in the male.
rectocele the protrusion of a portion of the rectum toward the vagina through a weak part of the vaginal wall muscles.
omphalocele a herniation of the intestines through the navel occurring in infants at birth.
cystocele occurs when part of the urinary bladder herniates through the vaginal wall due to weakened pelvic muscles.
amniocentesis withdrawal of fluid from the amnion for analysis.
streptococcus a berry-shaped bacterium, grows in twisted chains.
staphylococci other berry-shaped bacteria, grow in small clusters, like grapes.
abscess a collection of pus, white blood cells, and protein that is present at the site of infection.
diplococci berry-shaped bacteria organized in pairs.
pneumococci a diplococci that causes bacterial pneumonia.
gonococci a diplococci that invades the reproductive organs causing gonorrhea.
erythrocytes Red blood cells. These cells are made in the bone marrow (soft tissue in the center of certain bones). They carry oxygen from the lungs through the blood to all body cells.
Hemoglobin an important protein in erythrocytes, carries the oxygen through the bloodstream.
leukocytes White blood cells. There are five different types (three granulocytes or polymorphonuclear cells and two mononuclear cells).
granulocytes (polymorphonuclear cells) contain dark-staining granules in their cytoplasm and have a multilobed nucleus. They are formed in the bone marrow. There are 3 types.
eosinophils (granules stain red with acidic stain) are active and elevated in allergic conditions such as asthma. Make up about 3 percent of leukocytes.
basophils (granules stain blue with basic stain). The function of this type of leukocyte is not clear, but they play a role in inflammation. They make up less than 1 percent of leukocytes.
neutrophils (granules stain blue & red [purple] with neutral stain) are important disease-fighting cells. They are phagocytes and most numerous disease-fighting soldiers, and are referred to as "polys" or polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Make up 50 - 60% of leukocytes.
phagocytes cells that engulf and digest bacteria.
polymorphonuclear leukocytes leukocytes with a multilobed nucleus.
mononuclear leukocytes leukocytes with one large nucleus and only a few granules in their cytoplasm. They are produced in lymph nodes and the spleen. There are two types.
lymphocytes (lymph cells) A type of mononuclear leukocyte that fight disease by producing antibodies and thus destroying foreign cells. They may also attach directly to foreign cells and destroy them. Two types are T cells and B cells. Make up about 32% of leukocytes
monocytes (cells with 1 very large nucleus) engulf and destroy cellular debris after neutrophils have attacked foreign cells. These cells leave the bloodstream and enter tissues to become macrophages. Make up about 4% of leukocytes.
macrophages large phagocytes formed from monocytes that leave the bloodstream and enter tissues.
thrombocytes clotting cells. These tiny fragments of blood are formed in the bone marrow and are necessary for blood clotting. Also called platelets.
platelets (clotting cells) These tiny fragments of blood cells are formed in the bone marrow and are necessary for blood clotting. Also called thrombocytes.
anemia a condition of reduction in the number of erythrocytes or amount of hemoglobin in the circulating blood. Classified according to the different problems that arise with red blood cells.
aplastic anemia a severe type of anemia, occurs when bone marrow fails to produce not only eyrthrocytes but leukocytes and thrombocytes as well.
ischemia to hold back blood from a part of the body. Numerous causes including mechanical injury to blood vessels, blood clots, and occlusion of a vessel caused by collection of fatty materials.
ischemic tissues become this when they lose the normal flow of blood and become deprived of oxygen.
occlusion progressive and gradual closing off of a vessel caused by collection of fatty material.
tonsillitis a streptococcal infection of the throat and tonsils.
tonsillectomy surgical removal of the tonsils.
acromegaly an endocrine disorder that occurs when the pituitary gland produces an excessive amount of growth hormone after the completion of puberty, most often resulting in a benign tumor of the pituitary gland.
pituitary gland endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain.
leukocytosis an elevation in numbers of normal white blood cells occurring in response to the presence of infection.
leukemia condition with an abnormally high, excessive increase in the number of cancerous blood cells.
achondroplasia an inherited disorder in which the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow to normal size because of a defect in both cartilage and bone; results in a type of dwarfism characterized by short limbs, a normal-sized head and body, and normal intelligence.
blepharoptosis this condition occurs when eyelid muscles weaken, and a person has difficulty lifting the eyelid to keep it open.
laparoscopy visual examination of the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity using a laparoscope. (peritoneoscopy or MIS, minimally invasive surgery)
arterioles small arteries.
capillaries the tiniest of blood vessels.
venules small veins
adenoids lymphatic tissue in the part of the pharynx (throat) near the nose and nasal passages. "resembling glands" because they are neither endocrine nor exocrine glands. Enlargement may cause blockage of airway from the nose to the pharynx.
Created by: TracyR