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GEO 103 Final Exam

language family a group of related languages, with a common origin
dialect variations on a language in terms of vocabulary, pronunciation, speed, and rhythm
isogloss a mapped boundary denoting a difference in word choice
isophone a mapped boundary denoting a difference in word pronunciation
lingua franca an established language used for communication when native tongues are mutually incomprehensible
language isolate a language that is apparently unrelated to any other and therefore not part of any language family
toponymy the study of place names
postindustrialism an economy that has transitioned from traditional agricultural and manufacturing activities to one based on services, with emphasis on information management, advanced technology, finance, and managerial activities
globalization the increasing interconnectedness of all parts of the world as social, cultural, political, and economic processes become international in scale and effect
contagion loss of confidence in the value of local currencies and investments that is due in part to global market forces and threatens to spread to additional countries that have economic links
gross national income total market value of goods and services produced in an economy in a year
purchasing power parity a measure that takes into account what money will buy in each country, based on a fixed basket of goods
human development index measures the overall achievements in a country in three forms: longevity, knowledge, and a decent standard of living
gender empowerment measure accounts for women's proportion of political, professional, and income-earning power in society
gross domestic product total market value of goods and services produced in an economy in a year that occurs within a country's borders
state an independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory and having full sovereign control over its internal and foreign affairs (synonym: country)
nation a culturally distinctive group of people occupying a specific territory and bound together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity, beliefs, and customs (synonym: people)
nation-state a state whose territory is identical to that occupied by a particular ethnic group or nation (Japenese)
multinational state a state that contains more than one nation (U.S., Canada)
part-nation state a single nation that is dispersed across two or more states (Arabs)
stateless nation a people without a state (Kurds)
centripetal force forces that tend to bind or unify a state
centrifugal force forces that challenge the state's authority and threaten to weaken or divide the state
gerrymandering drawing the boundaries of voting districts so as to unfairly favor one political party over another
debt-for-nature swap reduction of debt in developing countries in exchange for preservation of the environment
greenhouse effect heating of the earth's surface due to increased amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, methane, and CFC's
global warming rise in surface temperatures on earth due to human activites that increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
Kyoto Protocol conference in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 aimed at reducing countries' greenhouse gas emissions
thermohaline circulation movement of ocean waters due to changes in salinity
great ocean conveyor belt of water that winds through world's oceans due to thermohaline circulation; the Gulf Stream is the apparent engine of this conveyor
Created by: BiZZleLemonZ1