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68WM6-A&P 4

QuestionAnswer
the utilization of nutrients by living tissues and cells assimilation
the movement of nutrients into the circulatory system absorption
a mass of food and saliva that is ready to be swallowed bolus
a semi-fluid mixture of food and gastric juice chyme
the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods, the absorption of nutrients by cells digestion
the elimination of indigestible substances from the colon defecation
the taking of food into the mouth ingestion
breaking food down into smaller pieces and mixing with digestive juices without altering the chemical composition mechanical digestion
the process of breading food down into simpler chemicals chemical digestion
9 organs of the alimentary canal mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
accessory organs of the digestive system salivary glands, teeth, tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
4 layers of alimentary canal mucosa, submucosa, muscular, serous
absorbtion, secretion, and protection are the functions of this layer of the alimentary canal mucosal layer
this part of the alimentary canal is made of tough, abrasion resistant, stratified epithelium esophagus
this layer of the alimentary canal nourishes the surrounding tissues and carries away absorbed materials submucosal layer
this layer of the alimentary canal produces movement muscular
outer layer of alimentary canal which produces fluid to lubricate the outside of intestines serous layer
this structure receives food and begins the process of mechanical digestion mouth
this structure is mostly muscle, it moves food to the back of the oral cavity tongue
this structure forms the roof of the mouth and closes the nasal cavity and pharynx during swallowing palate
this structure prevents food from entering nasal cavities uvula
these structures of the mouth begin the process of mechanical digestion teeth
these strucures of the mouth moisten and bind food and begin the process of chemical digestion salivary glands
these are the largest of the salivary glands, are located inferior to the ears, and secrete mostly amylase (serous cells) parotids
these salivary glands are located on the floor of the mouth and secrete mostly amylase (serous cells) submandibular
these glands are the smallest salivary glands, are located under the tongue, and secrete mostly mucous (mucous cells) sublingual
this structure connects the nasal and oral cavities with the esophagus pharynx
this area of the pharynx is above the soft palate and provides a passage for air during breathing nasopharynx
this area of the pharynx is behind the mouth and provides a passage for both food and air oropharynx
this area of the pharynx is the passageway from the oropharynx to the esophagus laryngopharynx
this collapsible tube provides a passageway for food from the pharynx, through the esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm, and into the stomach esophagus
this organ is a pouch under the diaphragm, it can hold up to one liter of food, and it is where protein breakdown begins, food that leaves here is called chyme stomach
this part of the stomach is the temporary storage area fundus
this is the term for the main part of the stomach body
this part of the stomach ends with the pyloric sphincter, which connects the stomach to the duodenum pyloric region
the general term for hydrochloric acid and enzymes that function in the digestive proces, found in the stomach gastric juices
these cells of the stomach secrete mucous, which provides protection from the gastric juices goblet cells
these cells secrete pepsinogen, which combines with hydrochloric acid to produce pepsin, which functions in the breakdown of proteins chief cells
these cells of the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid parietal cells
the exocrine secretion of the pancreas pancreatic juice
this secretion of the pancreas digests carbohydrates, fats, and proteins pancreatic juice
the endocrine secretion of the pancreas insulin
this connects the pancreas to the duodenum pancreatic duct
this is produced by the pancreas; it serves to neutralize the hydrochloric acid that escapes from the stomach to the small intestine sodium bicarbonate
this accessory organ of the digestive system secretes bile liver
this secretion of the liver aids in the absorbtion of lipids, is stored in the gallbladder, and makes possible the absorbtion of cholesterol, fatty acids, and the fat soluble proteins bile
this accessory organ of the digestive system stores bile gallbladder
the general name for the organ of the alimentary canal primarily responisble for digestion and absorbtion of nutrients small intestine
this part of the small intestine is the shortest and most fixed; it contains the common bile duct and pancreatic duct duodenum
this is the middle portion of the small intestine jejunum
this is the last portion of the small intestine and ends at the ileocecal valve ileum
these structures of the small intestine increase the surface area available for digestion and absorbtion, each contains a capillary, a lacteal, and a nerve fiber villi
this organ of the alimentary canal functions primarily in the absorbtion of water from the waste products of digestion, and in storing feces large intestine
this portion of the large intestine is the pouch below the ileocecal opening; the appendix branches off this area cecum
does the appendix have any known digestive function? no
this portion of the large intestine goes from the cecum upward towards the transvers colon ascending colon
this portion of the large intestine connects the ascending colon to the descending colon transverse colon
this portion of the large intestine travels downwards on the left side of the body descending colon
this S-shaped structure connects the descending colon to the rectum sigmoid colon
this structure near the end of the large intestine forms a temporary storage area for feces before defecation rectum
this is the connecting area between the rectum and the anus anal canal
the opening of the anal canal; protected by 2 sphincters anus
pH of less than 7.0 acid
negatively charged ion anion
pH of greater than 7.0 base (alkali)
accepts and relinquishes H+ ions to minimized pH fluctuation buffer
positively charged ion cation
substance that dissolves in solution and conducts electrical current electrolyte
loss of electrons oxidation
the scale of free H+ ions in a solution pH
gain of electrons reduction
what is the role of electrolytes in human physiology mantains voltages across cell membranes
normal ABG pH 7.35 to 7.45
pH range compatible with life 6.8 to 8.0
an increase of free H+ ions in a solution would _______ the pH decrease
a decrease of free H+ ions in a solution would _________ the pH increase
what are the byproducts of aerobic metabolism CO2 AND H2O
what is the byproduct of anaerobic metabolism C3H6O3 (lactic acid)
what organs are primarily responsible for the elimination of lactic acid kidneys
what are the three buffer systems which prevent major pH changes in the body bicarbonate buffer, phosphate buffer, protein buffer
this buffer is the most important in regulating the pH balance of the body, and works in both intracellular and extracellular fliuds bicarbonate buffer
this buffer takes place primarily in the kidney, and works only on intracellular fluid phosphate buffer
this buffer is the most abundant, and works in both intracellular and extracellular fluids protein buffer
pH imbalance caused by a rise in CO2 levels in the blood respiratory acidosis
pH imbalance caused by abnormally low levels of CO2 in the blood respiratory alkalosis
high blood pH caused by a factor other than CO2 levels metabolic alkalosis
low blood pH caused by a factor other than CO2 levels metabolic acidosis
the two regulation systems for blood pH respiratory, renal
this form of pH regulation excretes or witholds H+ or HCO3- based on blood pH, and takes hours to days to cause a change in blood pH renal regulation
this form of pH regulation eliminates or retains CO2 based on blood pH respiratory regulation
a pH of less than 7.35 on an ABG would be considered acidosis
a PH of greater than 7.45 on an ABG would be considered alkalosis
alkalosis along with a PaCO2 of less than 35 on an ABG would be considered respiratory alkalosis
acidosis along with a PaCO2 of greater than 45 on an ABG would be considered respiratory acidosis
acidosis with an HCO3 level of less than 22 would be considered metabolic acidosis
alkalosis with an HCO3 level of greater than 26 would be considered metabolic alkalosis
normal PaCO2 range 35-45
normal HCO3 range 22-26
normal SpO2 range 95-100
microscopic air sac within the lung where gas exchange takes place alveolus
cessation of breathing after expiration apnea
the bronchi and their branches bronchial tree
a primary branch of the trachea bronchus
a small branch of a bronchus within the lung bronchiole
the utilization of oxygen by the cells to produce energy, carbon dioxide, and water cellular respiration
ring-shaped mass of cartilage at the base of the larynx cricoid cartilage
difficult or labored breathing dyspnea
normal, quiet breathing eupnea
exchange of gases between alveoli and blood external respiration
prolonged rapid and deep breathing hyperventilation
decrease in respiratory rate, very slow and shallow breathing hypoventilation
deficiency of oxygen in arterial blood hypoxemia
deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues and cells hypoxia
hypoxia because of diminished blood flow ischemic
hypoxia because of diminished RBC's or hemoglobin anemic
exchange of gases between the blood and tissues internal respiration
process of mechanically moving air into and out of the lungs pulmonary ventilation
the entire process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and the body cells respiration
one inspiration followed by one expiration respiratory cycle
the force that adheres moist membranes due to the attraction of water molecules surface tension
increased breathing rate tachypnea
structures of the upper respiratory tract nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx, pharynx
structures of the lower respiratory tract trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
the main muscle of inspiration diaphragm
accessory muscles of inspiration pectoralis minor, sternocleomastoid, intercostals
inspiration is an _________ process, while expiration is __________ active, passive
the folume of air that is inspired or expired during a normal respiratory cycle tidal volume
the maximum air that can be inspired beyond normal tidal inspiration inspiratory reserve volume
the maximum amount of air that can be expired beyond normal tidal expiration expiratory reserve volume
the amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximum forced expiration residual volume
the maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible vital capacity
vital capacity + residual volume total lung capacity
generally speaking, is breathing a voluntary or involuntary act? involuntary
factors that can caused an increased respiratory rate fear, anxiety, pain
the urge to breathe is stimulated by rising levels of this gas in the blood carbon dioxide
this structure of the brainstem is responsible for the rhythm of breathing medulla oblongata
this structure of the prainstem is responsible for the rate of breathing pons
this reflex regulates the depth of breathing inflation reflex
other than CO2, blood levels of these chemicals can also affect respiration rate H+, O2
the portion of pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture partial pressure
what percentage of O2 in the blood is transported by hemoglobin 97
what percentage of O2 in the blood is dissolved in the plasma 3
higher concentrations of CO2 in the blood cause more or less O2 to be released from the hemoglobin? more
lower blood pH causes more or less O2 to be relased from the hemoglobin more
higher body temperature causes more or less O2 to be released from the hemoglobin more
what form is most CO2 in the blood transported in bicarbonate ions
Created by: ewoff85 on 2011-04-18



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