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Cummulaive Pathology

Everything covered in pathology

What is Health? Mental, pyhsicl, emotional and spiritual well-being
What is pathology? The scientific study of disease
5 commons Disease in Canada? Heart disease, cancer, lung disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes
What are the two pathologies that are consider chronic and have a large impact on Canadians? Arthristis and Obesity
What are predisposing Risk Factors? gentics, living environment, lifestyle, gender, age
Define Homeostasis? the ability of the body to maintain an equilibrium, within its internal environment
Define Pathogenesis? the development stages of a disease.
What are some mechanisims of disease? genetic disease, infection, inflammation, neoplasms, immune disorders, pyhsica trauma, chemical
What is an infectious disease? invade and destroy living tissue, caused by pathogenes, produces substance toxic to the body
Cardinal Signs of Infections are: redness (erythema, swelling, heat, pain, fever, enlarged lymph glands
what are wide spread infection signs? fever, headaches, weakness, delirium
Define begin tumours? develop slowly, can arise from any tissue, do not pread to other tissues, do not grow back if amputated
Define malignant tumour? have ability to spread and reproduce, can spread through the blood and lymph glands
what is an Abrasion ? Outer layers of skin ad underlying tissue are scraped away ex. road rash, scrapes
What are PTA/OTA interventions for Abrasions? aviod situations where they can further harm the injury, beware of bandaging, wear gloves
What is an Avulsion? when a portion of the skin and underlying tissue is cut away ex. toe cut off
What are PTA/OTA interventons for avulsions? don't get dressings wet, avoid affected area if new injury, wear gloves
What is a Thermal insult? results in extreme heat or cold ex. heat strokes, burns
What is frostbite? extremely cold tissue, usually face, ears, finger toes turn white, are numb and little pain is felt
What is hyperthermia? a general cooling of the bdy if core temp drops below 95 degrees
What is Osteoarthrisits? degenerative joint disese, most common arthritis and effects mainly cartilage
What is the Primary OA and what can it be caused by? wear and tear that begins to break down articular crtilage and caused by autoimmune disease, inflammatory and bacterial
What is Secondary OA and what is the prevelance? results in injury, repetitive stress, repeated gout, poor posture and prevelance increase with age, men 45, women after 45
What are some symptoms of OA? -insidious onset (slowly) -changes in synovial membrane -swelling/tenderness -muscle weakness
What are some treatments of OA? -maintian ROM in joints -anti- inflammatories
What is Rheumatoid Arthritis? -chronic inflammatory disease, effects the joints symmetrically, happens in both hips -destroys cartilage and bone, deforms joints
what is the etiology of etiology? unknown, genetics virus, environmental factors
what is the prevelance of RA? 1% of pop. more in women , higher in prevelance in urban areas
Cardinal Symptoms of RA? inflammatory synovits, joint destruction, muscle atrophy, bone destruction
what are 3 types of deformities with RA? 1. ulnar drift 2. boutonniere deformity 3. swan neck deformity
What is Osteoporosis? condition in which there is wasting or deterioration of bone mass and density
what is type 1 of osteoporosis? post-meopausal women - estrogen deficiency
what is type 2 of osteoporosis? occurs in men and women and effects the vertebrae and weight bearing joints
What s etiology of Osteoporosis? metabolic condition, imbalance b/w breakdown of old bone and formation of new
What are the symptoms of Osteoporosis? loss of height, dropping ribs, commonly affects spine, wrist, hips
Burtits is defined as? -inflammed, infected or traumatized -repetitive movements or prolonged and excessive pressure
What are the symptom of Burtitis? tenderness, pain on movement, edema (swelling)
what is treatment of Burtisis? rest, ice packs, anti-inflammatories and ROM
Where does Frozen Shoulder occur? often in the NON DOMINANT shoulder
What are the three stages of froen shoulder? 1. freezing 2. frozen 3. thawing out
Define strain? a twist, pull or tear of muscle or tendon
Define sprain? an acuteor partial tear of a ligament
What are the 5 types of fractures? -closed or simple -open (can see bone) -transverse fracture -greenstick (bone bends) - burst facture
Who does bone plate fracture occur in? happens in children, they will then stop growing
What are Herniated discs caused by? the annulus fibrosis breaks open and nucleus pulposus escapes
Gerd happens when? and causes what? Happens in stomach and duodenal back flow in to esophagus causes heart burn, belching and vomiting in mouth
What is the treatment of GERD? elevate the head of the bed, light meals, proton pump inhibitors, surgery
What are the two types of Peptic Ulcers? gastric and duodenal
Define Hiatus Hernia upper part of the stomah protrudes up through the esophageal, the sphincter does not work therefore they would go up into esophagus
What would be some symptoms of Hiatus Hernia? heartburn (wrose in recline), chest pain, difficulty swallowing
Define the two types of Hiatus Hernia sliding hiatus hernia - happens when part of stomach protrudes into chest when swallowing Para-oseophageal hernia- happens when part of stomach passes into chest
Gastroenteritis can be determined by: -inflammation of stomach and intestines -mucus,puss and blood in stool -diarrhea,cramps, vomiting, loss of appetite
Cirrhosis of the liver is known as... chronic degeneration of the liver, normal liver cells that are replaced with scars
What are some determinants of Cirrhosis of the liver? nausea, vomiting, red spidery marks on face and body. bleed and bruise easily, abnormal accumulation of fluid in abdomen
Hepatitis A is a ? viral disease = mild liver infection
headache anorexia, fever, inflamed liver and dark urine are all symptoms of ? Hepatitis A, B and C
Hepatitis A is highly contagious, true or false? true
What disease can be transmitted through blood, semen vaginal secretions and saliva? Hepatitis B
Does hepatitis C has a cure, true or false? false, it is not curable
What is the disease that causes an inflammatory disorder of the GI tract and can cause chrinic diarrhea, cramps and abdominal pain? Crohn's Disease
Type of pneumonia caused by bacteria that can spread through the air is? Legionnaires Disease
Define Pneumonia many different types, that is an infection or inflammation of the lungs, air sacs fill with fluid and puss
Define Asthma increased reaction of the bronchioles to a variety of stimuli
What is another name for collapsed lung? Atelectasis
What can cause collapsed lung? obstruction in bronchole tree, post op complications, prolonged inactivity
If there is chronic inflammation of mucus membrane lining, increased mucus production and bacterial infections in the lungs what might this be classified as? Chronic Bronchitis
Emphysema is an irreversible lung damage,weakening and breaking of air scas, true or false? True
Name some modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disorders... -smoking, physical inactivity, overweight, type 2 diabetes, increased alcohol use and shovelling
Name some non-modifiable risk factors... age, sex, race, family history
What is Angina? increased oxygen demands due to narrowing of conornary arteries
What are the cardinal signs of cardio disorder? chest pains, trouble breathing, fast breathing, palpitations and fatigue
Very high blood pressure, increased wear and tear on artieral walls, major cause of heart failure are all classified under.. hypertension
if damage is usually fatal, breathing, swallowing, digestive and eye movement are all affected what where would the brain injury have occured? Brain Stem
If balance and coordination are affected and results are clumsiness and shaking where would the brain injury have occured? cerebellum
If processing info becomes difficult and loss of right sided vision would be a result of what type of brain inury? Occipital Lobe
Hearing, memory, language and emotional labiality would be from what type of brain injury? Temproal Lobe
If sensory activities are difficult as well as language and memory problems where has brain injury occured? Frontal Lobe
Transient Ischemic Attack is a medical name for a.. little stroke
What happens during a little stroke? -blood supply to brain is temp. interrupted - results in impaired neurological functioning
Acute : short or small
ankyl/o : stiffness
ortho/o : correct
exacerbation : mental state
osteo/o : bone
my/o : muscle
gloss/o : tongue
hepat/o : liver
remission : period of abated disease
enter/o : intestine
delusion : false belief
-pepsia : state of digestion
dyspnea : difficult breathing
epistaxis : nosebleed
cyanosis : blue skin tone
asphyxia : lack of oxygen
tinnitus : ringing in ears
benign : not life threatening, not malignant
SOB : shortness of breath
paroxysmal : reoccuring in paroxysm
RD : respiratory distress
-capnia : carbon dioxide content in blood
-uria : substance in urine
arrythmia : irregular rhythm of heartbeat
atrophy : wasting away, deterioration
purulent : containing, discharging puss(eww)
hypoxemia : lack of oxygen in blood
scler/o : hard
sept/o : septum
-scope : intrument for viewing or observing
CV : Cardiovascular
DVT : deep venous thrombosis
pneum/o : air/gas
agnosia : loss of sensory stimuli
-osmia : smell
Hx : medical history/record
apraxia : loss of performance/skills
ascites : accumulation of fluid in abdomen
R/O : rule out
stasis : slowing/stopping or sustained
idiopathic : unknown cure
congentital : exisiting at birth or before birth
pruritus : itchy
diaphoresis : perspiration
BP or B/P : Blood pressure
erythema : redness
-ectomy : surgical removal
hyperplasia : increase in number of cells in organs or tissues
dysphagia : difficulty swallowing
What is the #1 symptoms of CVA? headache, sudden numbness, weakness, confusion, trouble speaking and walking
If a stroke is cause by a blood clot that clocks a blood vessel or artery to the brain it is what type ? Ischemic Stroke
What is a Hemorrage Stroke? caused by a blood vessel in the brain that breaks and bleeds into the brain
If a blood clot blocks flow to a certain part of the brain what type of clot is it? Thrombotic clot
A blood clot breaks off and travels to an area of the brain and obtructs blood flow what type of clot is it? Embolic clot
What does ABI stand for and what is the #1 cause for it? Aquired Brain Injury and car accidents
Describe and list the three traumatic brain injuries acceleration- head struck by moving object deceleration- head strikesa stationary object coup-contracoup- car accidents, brain shaking in skull
what type of disease is Huntington's Disease? hereditary, progressive degenerative disorder, results in brain atrophy and death
What are some signs of Huntington's Disease? uncontrolled movements, loss of intellectual abilities, emotional disturbances
what is the most common cause of neurological death each year in Canada? ALS
What does ALS affect? destroys motor neurons controlling voluntary muscle movements
What type of diease is HIV & AIDS? a retro virus that is spread through bodily fluids that attack T cells
Systemic Lupus Erythematosis is described as? -chronic autoimmune disease, attacks connective tissue and causes inflammation of the joints, skin kidneys, lungs and brain
What are the three types of Lupus? -SLE -Discoid Lupus Erythematosis -Drug induced lupus
-painful or swollen joints, sores in mouth and nose red rash across cheeks and nose are all signs of what disease? Systemic Lupus Erythermatosis
Created by: lyirwin