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Microbiology Exam 4

The immune response, microbes and disease, and epidemiology

Define antigen something that can trigger an immune response
Define innate response fast acting response, uses limited receptors to recognize molecules shared among large groups of microbes
Does the innate response have memory? No
Define adaptive response slow response, made up of cell-mediate and humoral immunity
Does the adaptive response have memory? Yes
List the cells of the immune response granulocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, dendritic cells, lymphocytes
List some granulocytes neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils
What do neutrophils do? phagocytosis in the innate response; most abundant cell in the immune response
What do mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils do? they are involved in the parasite (allergic) response; in innate response
List some mononuclear phagocytes monocytes and macrophages
What do monocytes/macrophages do? monocytes are in the blood, macrophages in tissue; phagocytes; trigger immune response upon detection of invader; use APCs (Antigen Presenting Cells)
What do dendritic cells do? they are messengers; play a role in BOTH innate and adaptive responses; act by carrying signals to T cells
List lymphocytes B cells and T cells
What do B cells do? recognize free antigen using its B cell receptor; will differentiate into a plasma cell and secrete antibodies upon activation with T cells help; is an APC
T cells must be shown antigen by one of the following APCs Helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells
What to helper T cells do have CD4 co-receptor that interacts with MHC class 2 molecule on APC; tells other cells what to do
What do cytotoxic T cells do? Have CD8 co-receptor that interacts with MHC class 1 molecule on ALL NUCLEATED cells; destroys target cells
What do natural killer cells do? augment the CD8 response by recognizing cells that lack MHC class 1
What are first line barriers? skin and mucous membranes
What does lysosome do? enzymes that degrade peptidoglycan; found in tears, saliva, blood, and phagocytes
What does perioxidase do? found in saliva, body tissues, and phagocytes; breaks down hydrogen peroxide to produce reactive oxygen
What does lactoferrin do? sequesters iron from microorganisms; found in saliva, some phagocytes, blood and tissue fluids
What do defensins do? antimicrobial peptides inserted into microbial membrane; found on mucous membranes and in phagocytes
What is normal flora? microorganisms found on body surfaces of healthy individuals; protects through competitive exclusion
What are toll-like receptors? receptors that recognize families of compounds unique to microbes
Created by: Sarah.Maxe