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Nutrition CH1 - WK1

Food, Nutrition and Health

Nutrition The sum of the processes involved in taking in nutrients and assimilating and using them
Nutrition science Scientific knowledge on human food requirements
Registered Dietitian (RD) Nutrition authority on the health care team – usually 1 per hospital
Dietetics Field that applies nutrition science to human health and assists in disease management
Traditional approach to health Attempts change only when illness or disease already exists; Little value for lifelong positive health
Preventive approach to health Identify risk factors; Allows people to choose behaviors to minimize risk of disease
Signs of proper nutrition Well-developed body Ideal weight for body composition - BMI Adequate muscle development Smooth skin, glossy hair, clear and bright eyes Mental and physical alertness Ability to resist disease Increased life span
Functions of nutrients in food 3 basic functions Provide energy Build tissue and sustain life Regulate metabolic processes
Carbohydrates Primary source of fuel for energy Maintain body’s back-up store of quick energy 1 gram carbohydrate = 4 kcal of body energy Should provide 45% to 65% of total kilocalories
How much carbs should be in diet? 45% to 65% of total cals
Fats Animal and plant sources Secondary (storage) form of heat and energy 1 gram fat = 9 kcal Should provide no more than 20% to 35% of total kilocalories
Proteins Primary function is tissue building Source of energy when supply from carbohydrates and fats is insufficient 1 gram protein = 4 kcal Should provide 10% to 35% of total kilocalories
How much fat in diet? no more than 20% to 35% of total cals
How much protein in diet? should provide 10% to 35% of total cals
What does protein provide in diet? Amino Acids - Necessary for building and repairing tissues
Vitamin C water soluable so not a toxicity issue; works well with protein; For collagen, the protein in fibrous tissue
Calcium and phosphorus Building and maintaining bone – not enough = osteoparosis – if not getting enough, will pull it from the bone
Iron Essential part of hemoglobin in blood
Fatty acids Build central fat substance of cell membranes; Promote transport of fat-soluble nutrients throughout body
Why is fat important to infants? brain development; born w/ brown fat – keeps them warm. Builds neuron connections – need fat to do that
Vitamins Function as coenzyme factors Components of cell enzymes in governing a chemical reaction during cell metabolism Take in what is needed and gets rid of what not needed
Minerals Also serve as coenzyme factors
Water Essential base for all metabolic processes – cramps in legs, bad skin turgor - dehydration
Fiber Regulates passage of food material through gastrointestinal tract – move out the junk from GI tract
Optimal nutrition Obtained from a varied diet Desired amounts are balanced
Malnutrition Improper or insufficient diet Includes both undernutrition and overnutrition
Undernutrition Less than desired amounts of nutrients Limits work capacity, immune system, mental activity
Overnutrition Excess nutrient and energy intake over time Produces harmful excess body weight Excessive amounts of nutrient supplements over time supplements over time
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Published by the National Academy of Sciences Updated every 5 to 10 years Includes recommendations for each gender and age group
four interconnected categories of nutrient recommendations Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) Adequate Intake (AI) Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)- max intake ingested w/out adverse effects
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Daily intake of nutrients that meet needs of almost all healthy individuals
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) Intake level that meets needs of half the individuals in a specific group This quantity is used as the basis for developing the RDA
Adequate intake (AI) Used when not enough evidence to establish the RDA
Tolerable upper intake level (UL) Sets maximal intake unlikely to pose adverse health risks
MyPyramid Food guidance system; updated every 5-7 years; Goal is to promote physical activity, variety, proportionality, moderation, and gradual improvements
Nine focus areas of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 Adequate nutrients within calorie needs Weight management Physical activity Food groups Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and potassium- affect heart Alcoholic beverages Food safety
DASH diet dietary approach to stopping hypertension
What does proper nutrition require carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals, and water
glycogen a polysaccharide, the main storage form of carbohydrate, largely stored in the liver and to a lesser extent in muscle tissue
kilocalorie refers to a unit of heat measure and is used alone to designate the small calorie.
Amino Acids nitrogen-bearing compounds that form the stuctural units of protein
Created by: MarieG