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Male Reproduction

Lecture Unit 3

Gross Anatomy of the Male Scrotum, testis, epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, seminal vesicles (make semen), ejaculatroy duct, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland, urethra, penis (external & internal portions).
Scrotum Skin covered sac that holds testes. Provides cooler temp needed for normal sperm development & maturation-3C lower then internal body temp. Raphe-external ridge-like seam. Median septum. Dartos muscle-wrinkles & unwrinkles scrotum. Thermoregulation.
Spermatic cord CT cord that runs from testis through inguinal canal. Ductus deferens. Cremaster muscle lifts & lowers testes-thermoregulation. Testicular vessels & nerves-Pampiniform plexus-network of testicular veins. Thermoregulation-pre-cooling of arterial blood.
Anatomy of the Testes Produce sperm & androgens. Covered by tunica vaginaliss & tunica albuginea. Testicular lobules contain up to 4 seminiferous tubules. Efferent ductules connect testis to epididymis.
Microscopic anatomy of the testes Sustentacular (Sertoli) cells-line seminiferous tubules-form blood-testis barrier. Assist w/ sperm development. Interstitial cells (of Leydig)-In interstitial spaces around seminiferous tubules. Produce androgens-testosterone in response to LH.
Sperm Spermatogenesis begins at puberty in seminiferous tubules. Controlled by FSH & testosterone. Acrosome-cap over the nucleus containing digestive enzymes. Head contains nucleus. Midpiece with mitochondria. Tail-flagellum.
Semen Seminal fluid from the accessory glands combines w/ sperm from the testes to make up semen. Called ejaculate when released. Average ejaculation contains ~1tsp. of fluid & 200-500 million sperm.
Three things that create seminal fluid (Accessory Glands) Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland.
Epididymis Sperm become mature & fully motile. Sperm are ejaculated from storae in the epididymis. Non-ejaculated sperm degenerate in epididymis.
Three layers of the Ductus (Vas) Deferens 1. Mucosa-pseudostratified ciliated columnar. 2. Muscularis-Contracs to move sperm through the ductus deferens. 3. Adventitia.
Vasectomy Form of birth control where vas deferens is cut & closed. Sperm are created then reabsorbed by the cells of the epididymis. Ejaculate contains seminal fluid, no sperm.
Ejaculatory duct Carries sperm from ductus deferens to the urethra.
Male Urethra Transports semen & urine to the outside of the body. 1. prostatic urethra 2. membranous urethra 3. penile (spongy) urethra.
Seminal Vesicles Fructose: nourish sperm. Prostaglandins: widen & dilate cervix.
Prostate gland Citric acid: nutrient. Seminalplasmin: antibiotic combats UTI in males. Prostate specific antigen (PSA): liquefies semen after ejaculation.
Bulbourethral glands Mucus: protect urethra, lubricant for sex.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Noncancerous enlargement of the prostate. Very common: >90% of men over 80 suffer from it. Nocturia: urination at night. Polyuria: more frequent urination. Dysuria: painful urination.
Prostate cancer Risk increases with age. Detected by digital rectal exam or PSA test.
Penis Root, shaft, and glans. Three erectile bodies: corpus spongiosum, corpora cavernosa (2). Dorsal veins. Deep arteries.
Erection Blood fills the erectile tissues. Deep arteries dilate. Blood is trapped in erectile tissues by compression of dorsal veins. Parasympathetic stimulus.
Ejaculation Expulsion of semen. Sympathetic stimulus. Orgasm. Urination is under parasympathetic stimulus.
Prepuce Skin covering glans. Removed during circumcision.
Created by: punkaloo