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Science 6 Quarter 3

attract to draw towards itself
repel to draw away from
polar molecule a molecule that has electrically charged areas
adhesion the attraction of water molecules to different substances
cohesion the attraction of one water molecule to another water molecule
surface tension the tightness across the surface of water caused by the polar water molecules pulling on each other.
capillary action the combined force of attraction among water molecules and with the molecules of surrounding materials.
dissolve to make or become into a solution or liquid
solvent the part of the solution present in the largest amount and dissolves a substance (solute)
water vapor the invisible, gaseous form of water
density the amount of mass in a given space; mass per unit volume
water cycle the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back, passing through the living and nonliving parts of the environment
contamination to make impure by contact or pollution
evaporation the process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to a gaseous state
condensation the process by which a gas changes to a liquid
solute the part of the solution in a lesser amount and is being dissolved
What is water made up of? Two (positively charged) hydrogen atoms & 1 (negatively charged) oxygen atom
Why is water considered a polar substance? Water molecules have electrically charged areas
What property allows fish in a lake to survive winter's freezing temperatures? Ice floats because it is less dense than water. Fish live in water below the ice.
What happens ot the molecules of water vapor when the temperature of the gas cools to 100 degrees C Water molecules slow down and begin to change back to a liquid state.
Why is water often called the "universal solvent"? Water can dissolve so mnay substances.
specific heat that amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of a certain amout of substance by 1 degree C.
suspension A mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separted by settling or filtration
solution A mixture in which the particles cannot be separated by settling or filtration
colloid A mixture in which the particles are undissolved but do not settle out
What is the source of energy that drives the water cycle? the sun
How much of the earth's water is salt water? 97%
Where is freshwater found on earth? ice, ground water, lakes & rivers, water vapor
Evaporation Process in which molecules absorb enough energy to change into gas
Transpiration The process in which plants loss water vapor through opennings in the leaves
Condesation The process by which a gas changes to a liquid (process that forms clouds_
Precipitation Any water that falls to earth including rain, sleet, snow, hail
How long do water molecules stay in the atmosphere? 10 days
Where does water evaporate? oceans, lakes, skin & plants
irrigation the process of supplying water to areas of land to make them suitable for growing crops.
What are the uses of water? agricultures, household uses, industry, tranporation, and recreation
runoff water that flows under the ground
Where does drinking water come from? rivers, lakes, reservoirs or aquifers *must be treated & purified
How can water be conservered? reducing water use, recycling water, reusing water, sprinkler or drip irrigation systems
salinity the total amount of dissolved salts in water
How is ocean water different form fresh water? ocean water freezes at a lower temperature & is more dense & more buoyancy.
What are currents? large streams of moving water that flow through oceans
How do currents affect climate? A surface current warms or cools that air above it, influencing the climate of the land near the coast
hydroelectric power electricity produced by the kinetic energy of water movign over a waterfall or a dam
kinetic energy the form of energy that an object has when it is moving
potential energy the form of energy that is stored and waiting to be used
Benefits of hydroeletric power clean, safe, efficient, naturally renewed
Disadvantages of hydroelectirc power expensive to staart, affects all living things in area around plant
conservation using a resource wisely so that is will not be used up
filtration process of passing water through a series of screens that allows the water through but not large solid particles (first step in water treatment)
weathering process that breakes down rock and other substances at Earth's surface
erosion the movement of rock particles by wind, water, ice, or gravity
mechanical weathering type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
How does mechanical weathering occur? freezing and thawing, release of pressure, growth of plants, action of animals, abrasion
ice wedging watger expands whne is freezes and acts as a wedge
abrasion rock particles carried by wind, water and ice can wear away rocks
chemical weathering process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
agents of chemical weathering water, oxgyen, carbon dioxide, living organisms, acid rain
What are the most important facors that determine the rate of weathering? type of rock and type of climate
permeable full of air spaces that allow water to seep through it
weather the conditions of the Earth's atmosphere at a particular place and time
atmosphere layres of gases that surrounds Earth
Why the the atmosphere important to living thigs? Atmosphere contains oxygen & other gases, traps energy from sun, keeps Earth warm so that water is abundant in a liquid state
What two gases are the most abundant in the atmosphere? nitrogen & oxygen
air pollution change to the atmosphere that has harmful effects.
emissions particles and gases that are released into the air
photochemical smog thick, brownish haze formed when certain gases in the air react with sunlight. *major source of gases: cars & trucks
temperature inversion layer of warm air prevents the rising air from escaping. The polluted air is trapped close to Earth's surface.
acid rain precipitation that is more acidic than normal (caused by burning of coal & oil gases released in air from factories & power plants that return in Earth's surface with precipitation).
ozone layer layer of the upper atmosphere about 30 kilometers above Earth's surface. This layer protects people from the effects of too much ultraviolet radiation.
greenhouse effect trapping of heat near Earth's surface. This theory predicts that an increase in carbon dioxide will cause Earth's average temperature to rise
Causes of Air Pollution Natural Events (volcanic eruptions & forest fires)& Human Activities (vehicle exhaust, industry/factory, construction, power plants, products with CFSs)
Effect of Air Pollution on Humans reppiratory problems, allergies, watery eyes, nerve damage, cancer
air pressure the result of the weight of a column of air pusshign down on an area
barometer instrument that measures changes in air pressure
2 types of barometers mercury barometer & aneroid barometer
units for air pressure inches of mercury or millibars
altitude elevation or distance above sea level
As air pressure decreases... altitude increases
properties of air mass, density, pressure, volume & temperature
4 main layers of the amtosphere troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
troposphere inner or lowest layer to Earth's surface; weather occurs here, dnsest layers, where life exists, contains 99% of water vapor in atmosphere, temperature decreases as altitude increases
stratosphere continas ozone layer, dry and less dense, temperature increases as altitude increases
mesosphere shooting stars burn up here, temperature decreases as altitude increases
thermosphere divided into two layers: inosphere & exosphere
ionosphere Lower layer of thermosphere, contain Northern Lights
Exosphere outer layer of thermosphere, satellites orbit in this layer
What are winds caused by? Differences in air pressure
humidity measurement of the amount of water vapro in the air
relative humidity the percentage of water vapor in teh air compared to the maximum amout that air could hold
How is humidity measured? psychrometer (two thermometers, a wet-bulb & dry-bulb)
Cumulus Clouds clouds that look like fluffy, round piles of clouds; associated with fair weather
Stratus Clouds clouds taht form in flat layers weather: as they thicken drizzle, rain or snow
Cirrus Clouds wispy, feathery clouds Weather: storm is on its way
drought logn periods of low precipitation
rain water droplets at least .5mm in diameter
sleet ice particesl smaller than 5 mmm in diameter (freeze in air)
freezing rain rain that freezes on cold surface
hail ice pellets larger than 5 mm in diameter
snow ice crystals
What is needed for precipitation to occur? cloud droplets or ice crystals must grwo heavy enougth to fall through the air
temperature the average amount of energy of motion fo each molecule of a substance
How is air temperature measured thermometer
thunderstorm storm with heavy rainfall accompanied by thunder and lightening (formed by cumulonimbus clouds)
tornado rapidly whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that raches down from storm cloud to touch Earth's surface (develops in low, heavy cumulonimbus clouds)
hurricane topricla storm that has winds of 119 km per hour or higher. Begins over warm water as a low-pressure area
natual factors that affect temperature latitude, altitude, distance from large bodies of water, ocean currents
natural factors that affect precipitation in a region pevailing winds, mountain ranges
air mass a huge body of air that has similar temperature
cold front a rapidly moving cold air mass runs into a slowly moving war air mass
warm front a moving warm air mass collides with a slowly moving cold air mass
stationary front a cold air mass and warm air mass meet and reamin stalled over an area
occluded front a war air mass is caught between two cooler air masses
Created by: jmebuckley

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