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The Digestive System

Absorption The passage of substances across and into tissues
Borborygmus Audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis
Amylase An enzyme that breaks down starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules
Constipation Difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
Bile A bitter, yellow-green secretion of the liver
Diarrhea The frequent passage of loose, watery stools
Chyme The liquidlike material of partially digested food and digestive secretions found in the stomach just before it is released into the duodenum
Dyspepsia A vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating (fullness, heartburn, bloating, nausea)
Crown The part of the tooth that is visible above the gum line
Emaciation Excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition
Deciduous Teeth Baby teeth; primary teeth
Emesis The material expelled from the stomach during vomiting (AKA: vomitus)
Defecation The act of expelling feces from the rectum through the anus
Eructation The act of bringing up air from the stomach with a sound through the mouth
Deglutition Swallowing
Flatus/Flatulence Air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum
Dietitian An allied health professional trained to plan nutrition programs
Gastroesophageal Reflux Backflow of content of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter
Digestion The process of altering the chemical and physical composition of food so that it can be used by the body cells. (Occurs in digestive tract)
Icterus Yellow discoloration of skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes caused by greaer than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood (AKA: Jaundice)
Enamel A hard, white substance that covers the dentin of the crown of a tooth (Hardest substance in the body)
Nausea An unpleasant sensation often leading to the urge to vomit
Endocrine Gland A gland that secretes its enzmes directly into the blood capillaries instead of being transported by way of ducts
Exocrine Gland A gland that secretes its enzymes into a network of tiny ducts that transport it to the surface of an organ, tissue, or into a vessel
Pruritus Ani Chronic condition of itching of the skin around the anus
Gastroenterologist Specialist in the study of diseases and disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract
Steatorrhea Greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces
Gavage A procedure in which liquid or semiliquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube
Gingivae Gum tissue
Anal Fistula An abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus, usually connecting with the rectum
Glucagon Hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the blood sugar level is dangerously low
Aphthous Stomatitus Small, inflammatory noninfectious ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips, tongue, and inside cheeks of mouth (AKA: Canker Sores)
Glucose A simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits, and major source of energy occurring in human and animal body fluids
Celiac Disease Nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small bowel mucosa
Glycogen A complex sugar (starch) that is the major carbohydrate stored in animal cells. It is formed from glucose and stored chiefly in the liver, and, to a lesser extent in muscle cells
Cirrhosis Chronic, degenerative liver disease that causes injury to the hepatocytes. (Hepatocytes are functional cells of the liver)
Glycogenesis The conversion of simple sugar (glucose) into a complex form of sugar (starch) for storage in the liver
Colorectal Cancer Presence of malignant neoplasm in the large intestine
Glycogenolysis The breakdown of glycogen into glucose by the liver, releasing it back into the circulating blood in response to a very low blood sugar level
Hepatocyte Liver Cell
Chrohn's Disease Digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia
Ileum The distal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum
Dental Caries Tooth decay caused by acid-forming microorganisms
Mastication Chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
Dysentery Painful intestinal inflammation typically caused by ingesting water or food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites, or chemical irritants
Nutritionist An allied health professional who studies and applies the principles and science of nutrition
Gallstones (Cholelithiasis) Pigmented or hardened cholesterol stones formed as a result of bile crystallization
Hemorrhoids Unnaturally distended or swollen vein in the distal rectum or anus
Pancreas Elongated organ (6-9" long)located in ULQ, that secretes various substances such as digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagon
Hepatitis Acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacterial infection, drugs, alcohol, toxins, or parasites
Pharynx Throat
Hernia Irregular protrusion of tissue, organ, or a portion of an organ through an abnormal break in the surrounding cavity's muscular wall
Rectum Portion of the large intestine (12cm long) with the descending sigmoid colon (just proximal to anal canal)
Intussusception Telescoping of a portion of proximal intestine into distal intestine, causing an obstruction
Rugae A ridge or fold that presents large folds in the mucous membrane of that organ
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Increased mortility of small or large intestinal wall, resulting in abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and trapping of gas throughout intestines
Saliva The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary and mucous glands in the mouth
Oral Leukoplakia Precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth
Salivary Glands One of the three pairs of glands secreting into the mouth, thus aiding the digestive process
Sigmoid Colon Portion of the colon that extends from the end of the descending colon in the pelvis to the juncture of the rectum
Sphincter Circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening in the body
Stomach The major organ of digestion, located LUQ and divided into a body and a pylorus
Uvula The small, cone-shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
Achlorhydria Abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice
Anorexia Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
Aphagia Loss of ability to swallow
Ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. (The fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes)
Peptic Ulcers Break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity
Colorectal Polyps Small growths projecting from the mucous membrane of the colon or rectum
Thrush Fungal infection in the mouth and throat producing sore, creamy white, slightly raised curdlike patches on the tongue and other oral mucosal surfaces
Ulcerative Colitis Chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers
Abdominocentesis (Paracentesis) Insertion of a needle or trochar into the abdominal cavity to remove excess fluid, with the person in a sitting position
Oral Cholecystography Visualization of the gallbladder through x-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye
Colonoscopy Direct visualization of the lining of the large intestine using a fiberoptic colonoscope
Gastric Lavage The irrigation or washing out of the stomach with sterile water or a saline solution
Cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gallbladder
Herniorrhaphy surgical repair of a hernia by closing the defect using sutures, mesh, or wire
Small Bowel Follow Through Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, which flows through the GI system. X-rays are obtained at timed intervals to observe the progression of the barium through the small intestine
Created by: sanzijessica