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CPC Study - Cardiovascular System

Function of blood: maintain a constant environment
Blood cells are suspended in: plasma
Blood is composed of: plasma, blood cells
Blood Types: A, B, AB, O
Types of blood cells: leukocytes, erythrocytes, thrombocytes
Types of leukocytes: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
Function of the arterial system: carry blood delivering nutrients and oxygen
Function of the venous system: carry away cell waste and carbon dioxide
3 types of blood vessels: arteries, capillaries, veins
The inner layer of an artery: endothelium
These exchange structures are connections between arterioles and venules: capillaries
These chambers of the heart receive blood: right and left atria
These chambers of the heart discharge blood right and left ventricle
3 layers of the heart wall: endocardium (smooth inner layer), myocardium (middle muscular layer), epicardium (outer layer)
Inferior vena cava major blood vessel - carries deoxygenated blood from lower extremities, pelvic and abdominal viscera to right atrium
Superior vena cava major blood vessel - drains deoxygenated blood from head, neck, upper extremities and chest to right atrium
Pulmonary Artery major blood vessel - bifurcates and becomes right and left PA - carries deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to lungs
Right and left pulmonary veins (4): major blood vessels - carry oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium
Aorta major blood vessel - carries oxygenated blood from left side of heart to body
2 layers of the pericardium: parietal (outermost covering), visceral (innermost)
4 valves of the heart: tricuspid, pulmonary, aortic, bicuspid
This heart valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle: tricuspid valve
This heart valve is located at entrance of pulmonary artery leading from right ventricle: pulmonary valve
This heart valve is located at entrance of aorta leading from left ventricle: aoritc valve
This heart valve is located between left atrium and left ventricle: bicuspid valve
This is known as nature's pacemaker and sends impulses to atrioventricular node: sinoatrial node
This is located on the interatrial septum and sends impulses to bundle of His: atrioventricular node
This divides into the right and left bundle branches in septum: bundle of His
These merge from bundle branches into specialized cells of myocardium, located at base of heart: purkinje fibers
This is the contraction phase of the heartbeat: systole
This is the relaxation phase of the heartbeat: diastole
Pathway of a deoxygenated blood cell from trunk through the heart: inferior vena cava - right atrium - tricuspid valve - right ventricle - pulmonary valve - pulmonary artery - lung capillaries - pulmonary veins - left atrium - bicuspid valve - left ventricle - aortic valve - aorta
ACS Acute Coronary Syndrome - blanket term covering symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia
Anastomosis surgical connection of two tubular structures
Aneurysm abnormal dilation of vessels, usually in an artery
Angina spasmotic, choking, suffocative pain
Angiography radiography of blood vessels
Angioplasty procedure in a vessel to dialte vessel opening
Atherectomy removal of plaque from an artery
Auscultation listening for sounds within body
Bundle of His muscular cardiac fibers that provide heart rhythm to ventricles
Cardioverter-defibrillator surgically placed or wearable device that directs an electric shock to the heart to restore rhythm
Circumflex a coronary artery that circles heart
Cutdown incision into a vessel for placement of catheter
Edema swelling due to abnormal fluid collection in tissue spaces
Electrode lead attached to a generator that carries electric current from the generator to atria or ventricles
Electrophysiology study of electrical system of heart, including study of arrhythmias
Embolectomy removal of blockage from vessel
Endarterectomy incision into an artery to remove inner lining
Epicardial over heart
False aneurysm sac of clotted blood that has completely destroyed vessel and is being contained by tissue that surrounds vessel
Fistula abnormal opening from one area to another area
Hematoma mass of blood that forms outside vessel
Hemolysis breakdown of red blood cells
Hypoxemia low level of oxygen in blood
Hypoxia low level of oxygen in tissue
Nuclear cardiology diagnostic specialty that uses radiologic procedures to aid in diagnosis of cardiologic conditions
Pericardiocentesis fluid is withdrawn from pericardial space via percutaneous needle
Swan Ganz catheter measures pressure in right side of heart and in pulmonary artery
Thoracostomy incision into chest wall and insertion of tube
Thromboendarterectomy removal of thrombus and atherosclerotic lining from an artery
CAD / IHD coronary artery disease / ischemic heart disease - thickening and hardening of arterial intima with lipid and fibrous plaque
Lesions on the femoral and popliteal arteries lead to: peripheral vascular disease
Lesions on the carotid arteries lead to: stroke
Lesions on aorta lead to: aneurysms
Lesions on coronary arteries lead to: myocardial infarction
Ischemia deficiency of oxygenated blood
3 types of ischemia: localized myocardial, transient, irreversible
Most common cause of Localized Myocardial Ischemia: atherosclerosis of vessels
Type of ischemia where the heart muscle performs at a low level due to lack of oxygen (reversible): transient ischemia
This type of ischemia is the cause of an MI: irreversible ischemia
This is normal blood pressure: 120/80
Stage 1 Hypertension: 140/90
Stage 2 Hypertension: 160/100
Stage 3 Hypertension: 180/110
ACE (as in ACE inhibitor) angiotensin-converting enzyme
If an aneurysm involves all 3 layers of arterial wall it is known as a: true aneurysm
False Aneurysm (saccular) separation of arterial walls usually as a result of trauma
Thromboembolus dislodged blood clot
Embolism mass circulating in blood
Types of embolisms: air bubble, fat, bacterial mass, cancer cells, foreign substances, dislodged thrombus, amniotic fluid
Buerger's Disease inflammatory disease of peripheral arteries creating thrombi and vasospasms most often in young men who are heavy smokers
Another name for Buerger's Disease: thromboangiitis obliterans
Raynaud's Disease secondary disease - vasospasms and constriction of small arterioles of fingers and toes - affects young women
Symptom of Raynaud's Disease: brittle nails and thickened fingertips
Varicose Veins blood pools in the veins, distending them
This is a varicose vein of the anus: hemorrhoid
Systolic heart failure occurs on this side of the heart: left
Diastolic heart failure occurs on this side of the heart: right
Diastolic heart failure results in: ventricle stasis, inadequate pulmonary circulation, peripheral edema, hepatosplenomegaly
Systolic heart failure results in: pulmonary edema
Infective Endocarditis inflammation of interior most lining of heart
3 common types of pericarditis: acute, pericardial effusion, constrictive
Rheumatic Heart Disease formation of scars of the endocardium and heart valves due to rheumatic fever
What do cardiomyopathies affect: myocardium (middle layer of heart wall)
3 types of cardiomyopathy: dilated (congestive), hypertrophic, restrictve
CoA coarctation of aorta (narrowing of aorta)
PDA patent ductus arteriosus (opening between aorta and pulmonary artery)
Another name for congestive cardiomyopathy: dilated cardiomyopathy
This type of cardiomyopathy results in thickened interventricular septum: hypertrophic
Created by: dropgallow