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Science Universe

What color wavelengths are the longest? The shortest? Which waves have more energy, the shorter or longer? Red wavelengths are the longest and blue are the shortest. Shorter waves have more energy and longer waves have less energy.
What can the concept of parallax help us discover about stars? Other objects in the universe? Show a sketch to explain parallax. It help us discover the distance from earth that the star or object is.The smaller the angle of the parallax the farther the star is. RIT
Why does Hydrogen have fewer emission lines than Helium? Explain. Hydrogen has one electron in a balanced state, as opposed to helium with 2 electrons, so when they move into different energy shells, helium’s 2 electrons can jump to more energy levels than hydrogen’s one and emit more kinds of photons.
How can you figure out the chemical makeup of a star? By looking at it’s spectra and studying the emission lines, you can match the emission lines in the star’s spectra to gasses with the same spectra.
Using the diagram above as guidance, briefly describe how color and brightness are generally related on the main sequence of stars. As you know, temperature and color (BV) are the same. Stars with a higher brightness have a bluer color and stars with lower brightness have a redder color.
On the diagram above, please circle and label where the red giants are on the graph and circle and label where the main sequence red stars are. Why are these stars as bright as some of the more blue stars? The red giants have equal brightness because of their bigger size.
On the diagram above, please circle and label where the dwarf stars are on the graph, and circle and label where the main sequence blue stars are. Why are these dwarf stars as dim as some of the more red stars? The dwarfs are dimmer because of their smaller size.
How are elements other than hydrogen created? What about atomic numbered elements above Iron? Elements other than hydrogen are created by nuclear fusions in a stars. Supernovas create elements about iron.
What is meant by “red shift”? “Blue shift”? Explain. Rshifts occur when a light producing object is moving away from earth and it’s spectra shifts towards longer wavelengths(more rcolored). Bshifts occur when a light producing object is moving towards from earth and it’s spectra shifts towards shorter wavel
What does the “closed universe” theory propose? What does the “open universe” theory propose?` The “Closed Universe” theory is that the universe will periodically expand and then contract. The “Open Universe” theory is that the universe will keep expanding eternally.
What is the most common element in a star? Hydrogen
What percent of stars are on the “main sequence” on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram? 90%
What is the main factor that shapes the evolution of the star? It’s initial/beginning mass.
How come some binary stars are called eclipsing binaries? A binary star involves two stars orbiting each other, so when seen from earth, when one goes in front of the other, it appears to be eclipsing the other.
What is a nebula? A nebula is a huge cloud of dust and gas and the possible birthplace of stars.
What are the three main types of galaxies? Spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and irregular galaxies.
What is a star cluster? It is a cluster of tightly-packed stars. There are two types of star clusters, Open clusters and Globular clusters. Open clusters are unorganized and contain hundreds of stars. Globular clusters (more common), are arranged in spherical or round shapes, ca
What are the three layers that make up the sun’s atmosphere? Define. Corona: Outermost layer, about 1,700,000ºC, the particles are spaced very far apart. Chromosphere: Middle layer, about average 27,000ºC, several thousand kilometers thick Photosphere: Innermost layer, no more than 6000ºC, about 550 kilometers thick OR (
What is solar wind? Solar wind is the continuous stream of high energy particles released from the corona in all directions.
What are sunspots? Sunspots are storms on the sun that look like dark spots on the sun surface, which are cooler than the rest of the surface.
What are solar flares? Solar flares are a type of storm on the sun that look like bursts of light on the sun’s surface, they release huge amounts of energy.
What are the approximate sizes of small and giant stars? Compare. The largest can 1000 times the size of the sun and the smallest is just 16 kilometers in diameter.
What is a supernova? It is a tremendous explosion in which the star breaks apart and releases tons of energy. Can add this is you like: When most of the nuclear fusion in a massive star stop, the central core is mostly iron. The iron atoms begin to absorb energy. Soon the en
What is a black hole? It is the core of a super massive star that remains after a supernova and the gravity is so great that not even light can escape.
What are the possible stages of a star’s life? Be sure to explain all the branching outcomes and phases clearly Evolution of Stars: Star formation - Sun (Main Sequence) - Red Giant - then the Red Giant can either turn into a White Dwarf - Black Dwarf (dead star). Or the Red Giant can explode in a massive supernova and if it has “high mass” it will then go to a Neut
Created by: kschool