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L1 Mech Of Disease

Definition and scope of Pathology

QuestionShort answerLong answer
Pathology The scientific study of disease Includes knowledge and understanding of structural, functional, genetic and biochemical changes in disease. Ultimate goal is to identify causes of disease to enable prevention of disease
Disease a condition in which some structural, functional, biochemical or genetic abnormailty of the body causes a loss of normal health (dis-ease) synonymous with ill health and illness
Experimental Pathology Observation of effects of manipulations on experimental systems Aimed at defining specific cellular and molecular abnormalities responsible for abnormal states.Carried out in University Departments, Research Institutions and Departments Of Pathology.
Diagnosis The act of identifying a disease in an individual patient. determination of the nature of the disease process
The process of diagnosis involves: * Taking a clinical history to document symptoms. * Examining the patient for clinical signs. * Performing investigations guided by provisional diagnosis based on signs and symptoms. Which: organ/body system is affected? general category of disease is present? *Use age, gender, previous medical Hx etc to deduce Dx or small # of possibilities for investigation. *Only perform investigations if outcome can resolve Dx or influence mgmnt
Diagnostic Pathology / Laboratory Medicine Identifies characteristic alterations or abnormalities that specifically identify particular diseases. Thus identifies molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for that disease.
Therapy Treatment. Once an exact diagnosis has been established, correct and effective therapy can be prescribed. Rational therapy is directed at the control or elimination of the mechanisms responsible for the disease.
morbidity the amount of ill health produced by disease the amount of illness that is experienced by the community
Anatomic Pathology / Morbid Anatomy Gross or macroscopic pathology The study of the alterations and organisation of cells, tissues and organs which are associated with disease.
Histopathology The investigation and diagnosis of disease from the examination of tissues at the microscopic level. (blank)
Cytopathology The study of cells which may be abnormal Investigates and diagnoses disease from the examination of isolated cells.
Chemical Pathology / Clinical Pathology Studying disease at the molecular level. The study of biochemical alterations associated with disease. Often evident in body fluids eg. blood, plasma, urine. Cross-sectional analysis of the cause and mechanisms of the disease, and the effect of the disease upon organs and systems of the body.
Veterinary Pathology Branch of pathology concerned with diseases in animals (blank)
Forensic pathology Branch of pathology concerned with the application of medical knowledge to legal problems eg cause of death, crime. interaction between law and medicine
Haematology Study of disorders of the cellular and coagulable components of blood (blank)
Immunology Study of the specific defence mechanisms of the body (blank)
Microbiology The study of infectious diseases and the organisms responsible for them (blank)
Oncology Study of tumours (= new growths, cancer)
pathos suffering, that which inspires pity, eg like people with illness or disease. (blank)
logos lecture, logic, study (blank)
Toxicology The study of the effects of known or suspected poisons (blank)
General Pathology Current understanding of the causation, mechanisms and characteristics of the major categories of disease. (blank)
Systematic Pathology Current knowledge of specific diseases as they affect individual organs or systems (blank)
List the chief characteristics that apply to any disease incidence, aetiology, pathogenesis, pathological and clinical features, complications and sequelae, prognosis, treatment (blank)
Autopsy Necropsy, Postmortem examination (blank)
Autopsies are useful for: - determining the cause of death. - audit of the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. - education of undergraduates and postgraduates. - research into the causes and mechanisms of disease. - gathering accurate statistics about disease incidence (blank)
Created by: skiwi