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punctuation only asserts itself in written word & thus plays vital role in __ __ & __ of language visual expression; interpretation
refers to punctuation marks that terminate independent clause/sentence terminal punctuation
period, exclamation point, & question marks, serve to create separation btwn one thought & the next; they are all terminal punctuation marks
marks end of sentence, either statement or command period
period can be used at end of a(n) __ __ indirect question
periods are used to separate a whole number from a(n) __ __ decimal fraction
periods are used after numbers or letters used to __ items in a list, unless numbers or letters are __ __ __ enumerate; enclosed in parenthesis
periods are used at end of each item in list, when those items are essential to __ __ of the statement introducing the list grammatical completeness
periods are not needed at end of each item in a list that does not represent a(n) __ __ to introductory statement grammatical connection
for enumerated lists that follow report heading, the heading functions as __ __ __ for which each enumerated item is a grammatical completion implied introductory statement
in clinical documentation, all enumerated lists __ __ terminal periods at end of each entry should include
when only 1 item follows the header, it serves grammatical completion, and should include a(n) __ __ terminating period
when single-item/enumerated list represents a list of __ __, you do not include a terminating period at end of each item people's names
always use periods with lowercased __ & __, whether English/Latin abbreviations; acronyms
many language/style sources have transitioned to dropping periods in most lowercased __ __ Latin abbreviations
retention of period in abbreviations used in treatment & drug dosage instructions __ __, by many language/style sources is recommended
do not use periods with __ abbreviations & acronyms, including titles & credentials that may have required periods at one time; it is no longer the practice uppercase
do not use periods with __ personal & courtesy titles, unless it is known that person in question prefers inclusion of period(s) abbreviated
do not use periods with abbreviated __ __ __ units of measure
use question mark at end of a(n) __ __ direct question
use question mark to indicate question within a(n) __ __ direct quote
do not use question mark within a(n) __, if it is the overall sentence that poses the question, and not direct __ itself quotation; quote
always place question marks at the __ of sentence, not at __ of quoted material end; end
in health care documentation, common for provider to indicate use of question mark to imply uncertainty about diagnosis; this should be transcribed as dictated
do not use question mark when a physician dictates __ __ or __ question of; questionable
in instance of direct quote & outside of direct quote, even if dictated, use of __ __ is discouraged exclamation points
serve to set of nonessential elements & to separate elements of an expression in order to clarify their relationship w/each other commas
single comma that serves as divider btwn 2 elements; digits, words, phrases, & clauses separating comma
use comma to separate 2/more __ modifying same noun adjectives
in clinical documentation, commas are __ __ from series of demographic descriptors used to identify patient frequently omitted
string of descriptors, in patient's demographic info, are generally treated as a(n) __ __ single unit
in patient's demographic info, when descriptors include other general adjectives to describe patient, apply commas only to those items
use commas to separate 2/more items in __ __, where none of items contain internal commas single series
in single series, do not use commas at all is all items are joined by and/or
always use serial commas before conjunction __ final item in your series preceding
to avoid clutter/confusion, use __ instead of commas or dashes to set off series that describes what precedes it parenthesis
use commas to separate 2 independent clauses in a(n) __ __ that are joined by a conjunction compound sentence
if no new subject is introduced after a conjunction you likely have a __ __ not a compound sentence compound verb
when you have a compound verb comma __ __ __ your conjunction should not precede
use comma to separate __ elements from the independent clause that follow it introductory
do not use commas after most introductory __ or short phrases that answer the questions when, how often, where, & why adverbs
use commas to separate groups of __ __ in numbers of 5-digits/more, but __ commas if decimals are used three numerals; omit
comma in 4-digit numbers may be __ omitted
do not place commas btwn words expressing a number
digits should be separated by __ __, not a comma, to indicate place values beyond thousands; formal publication of clinical data in periodicals, abstracts & scientific journals thin space
use comma to separate adjacent __ __ if neither can be expressed readily in words unrelated numbers
sentence should be __ to avoid confusion of adjacent unrelated numbers recast
use comma to separate __ of month from year when full date is expressed day
do not use commas when __ month & year are given only
when full date occurs in mid-sentence, use comma to separate __ from rest of sentence year
do not use commas to separate __ __ from titles such as Jr & Sr person's name
do not use commas to separate __ or __ numerals following person's name roman; arabic
do not use commas to separate __ or __ from business name unless it is know that entity in question prefers it Inc.; Ltd.
use comma to separate city, state, & __ country
use comma to separate __ & country state
use comma to separate state/country from rest of sentence
when expressing complete address in sentence, use comma to separate street address from __ address secondary
when expressing complete address in sentence, use comma to separate secondary address from __ city
when expressing complete address in sentence, do not use comma to separate __ & __ __ state; zip code
when expressing complete address in sentence, use comma to separate __ __ from remainder of sentence zip code
in genetic expression, use comma to separate __ __ & __ __ chromosome number; sex chromosome
in genetic expression, comma should be placed __ __ btwn the two numbers without spacing
do not use comma to separate 2/more __ whose units are the same dimension measures
use comma to separate direct __ from rest of sentence; comma should __ opening quotation marks when info introduces quoted dialogue dialogue; precede
comma should fall __ __ quotation marks, in direct dialogue, when remainder of sentence follows inside closing
use comma to separate 2 parts of __ __ to indicate omission of word/phrase whose meaning is implied independent clause
use commas to separate values of __ __ or test single panel
use periods to separate values of __ laboratory test unrelated
words, phrases, & clauses that are not necessary for grammatical correctness or structural integrity of sentence nonessential expressions
in determining nonessential expressions, more to do with whether it is necessary for sentence it resides in to have __ __ & structural integrity unhindered meaning
__ __ a nonessential word, phrase, or clause implies that it can be removed from sentence w/out compromising meaning/structural integrity setting off
word that most often introduces essential clauses that
word that most often introduces nonessential clauses which
use comma to __ __ words, phrases, & clauses that interrupt flow of sentence set off
use __ to set off an appositive comma
expression that provides additional, nonessential info about noun/pronoun that immediately precedes it appositive
use __ to set off afterthoughts commas
words, phrases, & clauses that are loosely added onto end of sentence, often expressing opinion/tone of speaker afterthoughts
exist in 2nd of 2 related sentences & help reader transition from through/idea expressed in 1st sentence to same in 2nd sentence transitional expressions
therefore & subsequently are examples of complementary transitional expressions
however & on the other hand are examples of contrasting transitional expressions
use comma(s) to set of transitional expressions when they occur in __ or __ __ of 2nd sentence middle; at end
when transitional expression __ 2nd clause, use comma to separate transitional expression from rest of sentence introduces
most common misapplication of transitional expression rule for commas, in transcription, occurs with the word however
primary function is to introduce a list, series, or enumeration; should be placed before such expressions as for example, namely, and that is when they introduce words, phrases, or series of clauses colon
when sentence uses __ __, such as the following, as follows, thus, & these, use a colon to separate the sentence from list/series that follows it anticipatory expressions
do not use colon to introduce words that __ __ into grammatical structure of sentence without the colon fit properly
use colon in standard expression of __; do not use it in __ __ time; military time
use colon in place of word to in the expression of a(n) __ ratio
__ __ __ virgule, dash, hyphen, or other marks in expression of ratios do not use
use to/hyphen instead of colon when expressing ratio using __ or __ instead of values words; letters
use colon only when expressing __ associated with ratio values
use colon to separate title & subtitle of __ or __ article; publication
use colon to separate __ number & __ numbers in footnotes, endnotes, & cited sources volume; page
use semicolon to separate 2 independent clauses, when 2 clauses express closely linked or related concepts/ides
semicolons are most often used to separate 2 independent clauses that are __ __ __ by transitional expression linked in concept
use semicolon to separate 2 independent clauses linked by transitional expression such as for example, namely, or that is
use semicolon to separate items in __ __, or series in which at least one of the items in series contains internal comma complex series
used to divide words btwn syllables when word does not fully carry to next line of text hyphen
when using hyphen, divide words only __ __ btwn syllables
when using hyphen, so not divide __ __ one-syllable words
when using hyphen, do not set off __ __ at beginning of word one-letter syllable
when using hyphen, do not divide words unless can leave syllable of at least __ __ on 1st line & carry syllable of at least same behind three characters
when using hyphen, do not divide __ abbreviations
when using hyphen, divide __ __ btwn words forming compound compound words
when using hyphen, divide hyphenated __ at point of hyphenation compound
when using hyphen, divide a word __ not __ a prefix after; within
when using hyphen, divide word __ not __ suffix before; within
when using hyphen, divide at prefix/suffix point, rather than in __ root
when using hyphen, divide one-letter syllable __ that syllable after
when using hyphen, do not divide words in more than __ __ lines of text two consecutive
when using hyphen, do not divide at end of __ line or end of __ line of paragraph first; last
when using hyphen, do not divide __ word on page last
consists of 2/more words that function as a unit & jointly modify a noun/pronoun compound modifier/adjective
words that make up modifier, in a compound modifier, cannot be adjectives themselves
derived from & take place of adjectival phrases & clauses compound modifiers
hyphenate __ compound modifiers when precede & modify a noun/pronoun all
do not hyphenate compound expressions when they occur elsewhere in sentence if they no longer function in adjectival role
if a compound expression no longer functions as adjective modifying a noun & functions instead as some other part of speech then the hyphenation should be dropped
types of compound expression that tend to drop their hyphenation are those formed w/adverbs & participles
when compound expression drop hyphenation the __ transitions back to primary role as verb participle
hyphenate compound modifiers that occur elsewhere in sentence if they continue to function as modifying compounds
when compound modifiers follow a linking verb & function as predicate adjective modifying noun/pronoun subject of sentence the compound modifiers continue to function as modifying compounds & should be hyphenated
do not use hyphen in compound modifier to link adverb ending in -ly with particle/adjective
when adverb ends in -ly, adverb functions to modify adjective/participle
when adverb ends in -ly, adverb does not function to serve in compound role
do not use hyphen in compound modifier is compound modifier is preceded by adverb
when compound modifiers commonly used together, or are so clear, they automatically read as a(n) __ and do not need to be __ __ __ unit; joined w/hyphen
do not use hyphens w/most medical modifiers when they precede the noun
example of medical term evolving away from hyphenation non-small-cell carcinoma
acceptable expression of non-small-cell carcinoma, based on latest trends, would be nonsmall-cell carcinoma
use hyphen with 2/more __ names used as multiple-word modifiers of disease, operations, procedures, instruments, etc eponymic
use hyphen to join 2 adjectives that are equal, complementary, or contrasting when they precede/follow noun they modify
do not hyphenate foreign expressions used in __ __, even when they precede noun they modify (unless they are always hyphenated) compound adjectives
use hyphen to form compound modifier btwn number & word if it precedes & modifies noun
when word represents unit of measure, hyphenate only when unit is English unit of measure, spelled out in full
do not hyphenate compound modifiers if unit of measure is abbreviated metric unit where neither numeric value nor unit of measure constitutes actual word w/which compound can be formed
per SI convention & metric standards, no intervening __ or __ should interrupt flow from numeric value to metric unit, even in modifying relationship symbols; punctuation
compound modifiers should be formed by at least __ __ __ & metric value expressions do not meet that criterion one complete word
use hyphen to __ __ & avoid confusion, absurdity, or ambiguity in compound modifiers clarify meaning
hyphen may not be necessary if meaning is __ __ by surrounding context made clear
use hyphen/en dash to hyphenate compound modifier formed with one-word modifier in prefix
when compound modifier formed w/one-word modifier in prefix, prefix is hyphenated to clearly communicate modifying relationship with entire compound & not just 1st word
use hyphen to join 2 nouns that are equal, complementary, or contrasting
do not hyphenate __ __ of more than one word, even when serving as modifier preceding noun proper nouns
do not use hyphen in combination of proper & common noun
use hyphen w/all compound nouns containing ex- when ex- means __ & precedes noun that can stand on its own former
most compound __ are hyphenated or are one word verbs
if unable to locate compound verb in dictionary, hyphenate the components
do not use hyphen in compounds verbs that are formed w/preposition like up, in, down, etc.
when compound verbs formed w/preposition are used as nouns, they drop hyphenation & become joined compounds
follow-up is acceptable in hyphenated form when used as adjective
both adjective & noun forms of followup & followthrough have dropped hyphenation & become single compounds
when expressing numbers in words, hyphenate all compound numbers btwn 21 & 99, whether they stand alone or are part of a number over 100
only instance where numbers would be spelled out in healthcare documentation when number occurs at beginning of sentence that cannot be recast
choose simplest form for clarity of communication when there is more than one acceptable number expression
use hyphens in expression of __ numbers serial
use hyphens to express __ numbers that are combined w/whole numbers, whether spelled out or expressed w/numerals fractional
use hyphen in place of word to in range expressions if phrases from...to, from...through, & between...and are not used
use hyphen in place of word to in range expressions if decimals &/or commas do not appear in numeric values
use hyphen in place of word to in range expressions if neither value contains four/more digits
use hyphen in place of word to in range expressions if neither value is negative
use hyphen in place of word to in range expressions if neither value is accompanied by a symbol
do not use hyphen after common prefixes (ante-, anti-, bi-, co-, con-, tra-, counter-, de-, extra-, infra-, intra-, micro-, mid-, non-, over-, peri-, pre-, post-, pro-, pseudo-, re-, semi-, sub-, super-, supra-, trans-, tri-, ultra-, un-, under-) when they precede proper noun, capitalized word, or abbreviation
use hyphen after prefix when unhyphenated word would have different meaning
use hyphen after prefix, or before suffix, to avoid unusual/awkward combination of letters
use hyphen after prefix, or before suffix, to prevent __ vowels or three of same __ sequentially repetitive; consonants
number of industry resources already site __ without hyphenation, through hyphenated form is still acceptable antiinflammatory
use __ hyphen after each incomplete modifier when there is series of 2/more hyphenated compounds that have common last word/base suspensive
do not use suspensive hyphen w/stand-alone prefix that precedes a(n) unhyphenated prefix compound
do not hyphenate modifiers in which letter/number is second element
used to provide incidental or supplementary info that is not closely related to rest of sentence; may/may not be dictated, & transcriptionist should avoid using unless dictated parentheses
it is better to use a comma to provide __ or __ information, rather than parentheses incidental; supplementary
punctuation should not precede or follow __ expression, unless sentence requires it parenthetical
punctuation should not be included __ parenthetical expression, unless expression requires it within
use parentheses to __ __ within sentence, separating them by commas/semicolons enumerate items
may be used around a parenthetical insertion or within parenthetical insertion; follow rules for parentheses brackets
use brackets to express __ concentration chemical
when chemical concentrations are expressed as percentages, use % sign rather than spelled-out form, and do not use brackets
when expressing chemical formulas, use __ for innermost units, adding __ & then __ if necessary parentheses; brackets; braces
used in reporting of clinical data & scientific values; (/) aka diagonal, slant line, slash, or solidus virgule
often used to express equivalence, instance where 2 terms are of equal weight in an expression virgules
when the word and is implied between expressions, a virgule (/) can be retained
when considering duality, or instance where word or is implied between expressions do not use virgule
virgule can be used for per when construction involves at least one metric unit of measure
virgule can be used for per when at least one element includes specific numeric quantity
when expressions use nonmetric units of measure do not use virgule because it implies abbreviated expression & non metric units are abbreviated in the record
exception for use of virgule, when expression combines metric w/nonmetric unit
do not use virgule in place of per when __ __ intervenes between 2 units of measure prepositional phrase
do not use virgule in place of per when neither element (when both numeric) in expression represents unit of measure
do not use virgule in place of per when there are 2 numeric values accompanying different units of measure (particularly drug concentration expression)
when units of measure differ &/or elements are unknown, virgule should not be used to imply direct relationship
virgule can be used when there are 2 numeric values accompanying different units of measure or units of measure differ &/or elements are unknown, only when such expression is part of legally registered trademark indicated by manufacturer
use virgule to express __ in certain relational expressions over
when range combined w/over or out of expression spell out expression
do not use virgule to express over or out of expressions
when hyphen used to express range of 2 large numbers express both numbers in entirety to avoid confusion/lack of clarity
virgules may be used to __ __ representing month, day, & year in tables & figures separate numerals
may be used for date of service, operation, admission, or discharge when capturing patient demographic data as well as for dates dictated & transcribed at bottom of report virgule to separate numerals representing month, day, & year
trend in most formal documentation is to reflect __ date when using virgule construction 8-digit
it is preferable to __ __ dates in full spell out
dates should always be fully spelled out in formal correspondence
when only month & day are dictated, it is preferable to add year, if known
use virgule to separate numerator from denominator in fractions
do not use virgule to separate fractional elements when they are expressed __ __, use hyphen instead as words
express visual acuity with __ __ separated by virgule arabic numerals
begin complete quotation with __ __ if quoted material represents an independent clause capital letter
do not capitalize 1st word of quotation if it represents word, phrase, or dependent clause that has grammatical relationship w/rest of sentence
punctuation marks typically fall __ closing quotation marks to facilitate unhindered punctuation of sentence in which quotations reside inside
semicolons should always __ __ quotation marks fall outside
inclusion w/in quoted material is dependent on meaning question marks & exclamation points
place question mark/exclamation point __ ending quotation if material being quoted is expressed as exclamation/question inside
do not use single/double quotation marks to represent __ & __ in dimensional expression feet; inches