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Animal Sci Vocab


Natural Any ingredient that is derived exceptionally from plant, animal, or mined sources
Beef Tallow Solid fat made by rendering fat from cattle
Fat A source of essential fatty acids and highly concentrated source of calories
Palatability Degree of readiness for an animal to consume food
Animal Digest Very palatable product derived from enzymatic digestion of clean, undecomposed animal tissues into smaller molecules
AAFCO Association of American Feed Control Officials
FDA Food and Drug Administration
Kibble Dry dog/cat food
Less than 12% moisture Lowest palatability Dry dog/cat food
Semi-moist dog/cat food 25-35% moisture Medium palatability
75% moisture Highest palatability Wet dog/cat food
Low digestibility means... More POOP!
Nutrition The study of the food needs of the body
Amino Acids Building blocks of protein; any of several organic compounds and carboxyl groups and occurring naturally in plants and animals
Intestinal Mucosa Mucous membrane lining the intestine
Bioavailable The ability of a nutrient, drug, or other substance to be absorbed and used by the body
Energy Density Number of calories provided by a given weight or volume of pet food
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
Additives Substances added to food, including preservatives, colorings, and flavorings
Preservatives Substances added to foods to destroy or inhibit microbial growth and slow decay, discoloration, or spoilage under normal conditions of use or storage
Rancidity Decomposition of fats and oils that produces off odors and flavors and destroys fat-soluble vitamins
Striated Muscle Striped looking muscle due to alternating light and dark bands
Viscera All organs in thoracic and abdominal cavities
Meat and Bone Meal Rendered product from mammalian tissue, including bone, without Added blood, hair, hooves, hide trimmings, manure, and stomach/rumen contents
Rendered Processed using low heat to separate fat from bone and protein while simultaneously drying the material
Hydrolysis Complex materials are broken down into simpler ones by adding water
Non-rendered Products that have not been precessed
Essential Fatty Acids Fatty acids that cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by the diet
Fiber Portion of ingested foods that resists digestion in the gastrointestinal tract
Calories Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5 Celsius to 15.5 C; Energy
Digesta Gastrointestinal tract contents undergoing digestion
Ad Libitum Free choice feeding
Kilocalorie 1,000 calories
Metabolizable Energy Amount of energy in a food available for body's use
Dry Matter Basis Method of expressing a food's nutrient content on a moisture-free basis
Digestibility Proportion of nutrients in food available for absorption from the GI tract
Nutrient Density Concentration of nutrients per fixed portion of food
Malnutrition Abnormal nutrition; Caused by a diet that contains too much or too little essential nutrients
Nutrient Any food component the body requires to support life
Mouth Teeth grasp, tear, and grind food into small pieces; tongue positions food for swallowing
Esophagus Transports food from mouth to stomach
Stomach Provides food storage; very acidic environment; moves food to small intestine
Pepsinogen Enzyme precursor secreted by the chief cells in the stomach
Hydrochloric Acid HCl; normal part of gastric juice in cats and dogs
Pepsin Protein-degrading enzyme that is activated from pepsinogen in the stomach; the principal digestive component of gastric juice
Mucus complex, gel-like substance secreted by specific cells or mucous glands; acts as a protective barrier and lubricant
Small Intestine Mixes ingested food with bile and digestive enzymes; absorbs nutrients; less acidic than stomach
Bile Clear yellow, orange, or green fluid produced by the liver; helps break down fats and rid the body of wastes
Brush Border Area on the free surface of an epithelial cell that is covered with microvilli
Microvilli Fingerlike projections that increase cell's exposed surface area to maximize intestinal absorption
Large Intestine Site of microbial fermentation of digested food; absorbs water and electrolytes; moves waste to rectum and anus defecation
Microbial Fementation *** Anaerobic enzymatic conversion of some carbs to simpler compounds by microorganisms in the large intestine of cats and dogs ***
Created by: cayablon