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Disease Kust

INFECTIOUS DISEASE diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms
CONTAGIOUS/COMMUNICABLE an infectious disease transmitted from human to human
NONCOMMUNICABLE infectious diseases that are not transmitted directly by humans.
PATHOGENS microorganisms that cause disease
CELL WALLS a rigid layer of organic material surrounding delicate cell membranes of bacteria
COCCI Spherical
BACILLI rod-shaped bacterial cells.
SPIRILLA spiral-shaped bacterial cells.
SPIROCHETES corkscrew-shaped bacterial cells.
VIBRIOS comma-shaped bacterial cells.
GRAM STAIN the staining technique that permits the identification of bacteria
BINARY FISSION process in w/c bacteria reproduce by splitting in half
ENDOSPORES structures produced by bacteria and formed to cope with harsh environmental conditions
ENDOTOXIN a potent toxin from certain bacteria that causes life-threatening shock.
CAPSID protein coat of viruses
LYSE the infecting of cells by viruses
LATENT INFECTION a condition caused when viruses insert themselves in cells and do not reproduce.
AMOEBOIDS a type of protozoa that moves with pseudopodia
FLAGELLATES a type of protozoa that moves using whiplike appendages called flagella
CILIATES a type of protozoa that moves using hairlike cilia
SPOROZOANS a form of protozoa; a single-celled
PSEUDOPODIA cell membrane extensions used for locomotion of phagocytosi
FLAGELLA whip-like cell appendages used for locomotion
CILIA the hairlike projections found in the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract
MYCELIA filaments in fungi specialized for absorption of nutrients.
SPORES microscopic fungal reproductive structures that can induce allergies
MYCOSES infectious diseases caused by fungi
INFESTATIONS infections involving wormlike animals called helminths.
ROUNDWORMS a wormlike animal that is relatively round in cross-section
FLATWORMS a wormlike animal that has a flattened body
VECTORS animals that transmit pathogenic microorganisms to humans
RESERVOIRS the sources of a pathogen and a potential source of disease
HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION the route by w/c an infectious diseas is transmitted directly from an infected human to a susceptible human
VERTICAL TRANSMISSION the route by w/c an infectious disease is transmitted from one generation to the next
INCIDENCE the number of new cases of a disease in a population
PREVALENCE the number of existing cases of a disease
ENDEMIC describes a disease in w/c endometrial tissue from the uterus becomes embedded elsewhere
EPIDEMIC the occurrence of a disease in unusually large numbers over a specific area
PANDEMIC describes an epidemic that has spread to include several large areas worldwide
OUTBREAK the sudden occurrence of a disease
NOTIFIABLE DISEASES diseases under surveillance that must be reported by physicians to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
ISOLATION keeping an infected person in the hospital or staying at home in bed when suffering form a disease as a way of controlling the transmission of infectious diseases
QUARANTINE the separation of persons who may or may not be infected from healthy people until period of infectious risk is passed
DISINFECTION reduing the risk of infection or contamination
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS precautions such as gloves required of medical personnel when handling patiens or bodily fluids
ANTIBIOTIC drugs used to treat bacterial infections
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE resistance arising when bacteria adapt to antibiotics and the adaptation becomes common in the bacterial population
NUCLEIC ACID ANALOGUES anti-viral medications
affect feeling
amyloid waxy
autism syndrome of extreme withdrawal and obsessive behavior
catatonic a state of not being able to move
circadian biologic clock in humans; the rhythmic repetition of certain phenomena
cognitive pertaining to the mental processes of thinking
deficit A deficiency or impairment in mental or physical functioning
delusion a fixed false belief that is resistant to reason or confrontation with actual fact
endarterectomy the surgical excision of the innermost lining of an artery to remove blockage
hallucination a false perception of reality; may be visual
hypoxia low oxygen levels in the tissues
ischemia holding back or obstructing the flow of blood
mutism a condition of being unable to speak
narcissistic A psychological condition characterized by self-preoccupation
paranoid Exhibiting or characterized by extreme and irrational fear or distrust of others
psychotic a person characterized by a loss of contact with reality and an inability to think rationally
schizoid pertaining to a personality disorder marked by dissociation
mental retardation wide range of conditions that interfere with the developmental processes
learning disabilities conditions that cause children to learn in a manner that is not normal
stuttering communication disorder defined as frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/ADHD a condition of persistent inattention leading to hyperactivity and impulsivity
tourette's disorder a syndrome of multiple motor tics coupled with one or more vocal tics
alzheimer's disease progressive degenerative disease of the brain that produces a typical profile of loss of mental and physical functioning
vascular dementia general loss of intellectual ability from hypoxia and reduced nourishment to the brain cells from narrowed arteries
alcohol abuse disorder of physical and psychological dependence on daily or regular excessive intake of alcoholic beverages
schizophrenia group of disorders that may result in chronic mental dysfunction
bipolar disorder major affective disorder with abnormally intense mood swings from a hyperactive
major depressive disorder mood disorder characterized by one or more major depressive episodes
anxiety/panic disorder free-floating anxiety... constant worrying/sudden anxiety
phobic disorder excessive
obsessive-compulsive disorder persistent unwanted thoughts and persistent urges to carry out specific actions
posttraumatic distress disorder delayed response to an external traumatic event that produces signs and symptoms of extreme distress
somatization disorder/Briquet's syndrome multisymptomatic disorder occurring before the age of 30
conversion disorder anxiety is changed to a physical or somatic symptom/hysteria
pain disorder manifested by pain that causes significant distress and physical and social impairment
hypochondriasis preoccupied fear of having a serious disease/patients mistake body-system symptoms or aches and pains without clinical basis for serious illnesses
munchausen's syndrome seeking medical attention without real illness for one's self or one's child
gender identity disorder conditions in which individuals feel powerful connections with the opposite sex and wants to be the other sex
insomnia difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep
parasomnias group of sleep disorders that include sleepwalking
narcolepsy irresistable daytime sleep episodes that may last a few seconds to a half-hour
sleep apnea intermittent short periods of breathing cessation during sleep
agglutination the clumping of antigens with antibodies or of the RBC's from one type of blood with the RBC's of another type
aggregation the coming together of entities such as platelets
angioplasty repair of a narrowed blood vessel through surgery or other angiographic procedures
arteriosclerosis group of diseases characterized by hardening of the arteries
asystole the absence of contractions of the heart/cardiac standstill
atherosclerosis thickening/hardening of the arteries
bradycardia a slow heartbeat rate
bruit abnormal sound heard in auscultation
cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
cardiomyopathy defect of the heart muscle
cellulitis acute
dyscrasia pathologic condition/abnormal condition of the blood
ecchymosis discoloration of the skin associated with contusion
embolism the occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus
hematopoiesis pertaining to the production and the development of blood cells or a substance that stimulates their production
hemolytic destruction of RBC's with the release of hemoglobin
hypovolemia blood disorder consisting of a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
hypoxia low oxygen levels in the tissues
ischemia holding back/obstructing blood flow
orthopnea condition in which breathing becomes easier in an upright standing or sitting position
perfusion delivery of oxygen and other nutrients to the tissue by the blood
petechiae a tiny spiderlike hemorrhage under the skin
phlebotomy sugical puncture of a vein to withdraw blood
plaque a deposit of hardened material lining the blood vessel
purpura a red-purple discoloration of the skin caused by multiple minute hemorrhages in the skin or mucous membrane
syncope fainting/lightheadedness
tachycardia rapid heartbeat/more than 100 beats per minute
tamponade compression of a part by pressure or a collection of fluid
thrombus blood clot attached to the interior wall of a blood vessel
coronary artery disease/CAD condition involving arteries supplying the myocardium
angina pectoris chest pain after exertion/result of reduced oxygen supply to the myocardium
myocardial infarction death of myocardial tissue caused by the development of ischemia
cardiac arrest sudden
hypertensive heart disease result of chronically elevated pressure throughout the vascular system/most prevalent cardiovascular disorder in the U.S.
essential/primary hypertension condition of abnormally high blood pressure in the arterial system
malignant hypertension severe form of hypertension/life-threatening condition
congestive heart failure acute or chronic inability of the heart to pump enough blood throughout the body to meet the demands of homeostasis
cor pulmonale results in enlargement of the right ventricle as a sequela to primary lung disease/right-sided heart disease
pulmonary edema condition of fluid shift into the extravascular spaces of the lungs
cardiomyopathy noninflammatory disease of the cardiac muscle resulting in enlargement of the myocardium and ventricular dysfunction
pericarditis acute/chronic inflammation of the pericardium (serosa)
myocarditis inflammation of the muscular walls of the heart
endocarditis inflammation of the lining and the valves of the heart
rheumatic fever systemic inflammatory and autoimune disease involving the joints and cardiac tissue
rheumatic heart disease cardiac manifestations that follow rheumatic fever
valvular heart disease acquired/congenitial disorder that can involve any of the four heart valves
mitral stenosis hardening of the cusps of the mitral valve that prevents complete and normal opening for the passage of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle
mitral insufficiency mitral valve fails to close completely and allows blood from the left ventricle to flow back into the left atrium
mitral valve prolapse usually a benign condition
arrhythmias any deviation from the normal heartbeat or sinus rhythm/irregular heartbeat
shock collapse of the cardiovascular system
cardiogenic shock inadequate output of blood by the heart
cardiac tamponade compression of the heart muscle and restriction of heart movement caused by blood or fluid trapped in the pericardial sac/cardial compression
emboli clots of aggregated material (usually blood) that can lodge in a blood vessel and inhibit blood flow
aneurysm weakening and resulting local dilation of the wall of an artery
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
thrombophlebitis result of inflammation of a vein with the formation of a thrombus on the vessel wall
varicose veins swollen
thromboangiitis obliterans/Buerger's disease inflammation of the peripheral arteries and veins of the extremities with clot formation
raynaud's disease vasospastic condition of the fingers
anemias conditions in which there is a reduction in the quantity of either RBC's or hemoglobin in a measured volume of blood
agranulocytosis/neutropenia blood dyscrasia in which leukocyte levels become extremely low
polycythemia abnormal increase in the amount of hemoglobin
acute lymphocytic leukemia/ALL characterized by an overproduction of immature lymphoid cells (lymphoblasts) in the bone marrow and lymph nodes
chronic lymphocytic leukemia/CLL neoplasm that involves the lymphocytes/slowly progressive disease that results in accumulation of mature-appearing
acute myelogenous leukemia/AML rapidly progressive neoplasm of cells committed to the myeloid line of development. Leukemic cells accumulate in the bone marrow
chronic myelogenous leukemia/CML slowly progressing neoplasm that arises in a hematopoietic stem cell or early progenitor cell
lymphedema abnormal collection of lymph
lymphangitis inflammation of the lymph vessels
lymphoma malignant neoplasms that arise from uncontrolled proliferation of the cellular components of the lymph system
Hodgkin's disease cancer of the body's lymphatic system
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma/NHL a number of heterogeneous neoplasms of the lymphoid cells that exhibit a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms
transfusion incompatability reaction results when the blood or blood products transfused has antibodies to the recipient's RBC's or the recipient has antibodies to the donor's RBC's
classic hemophilia hereditary bleeding disorder resulting from deficiency of clotting factors
disseminated intravascular coagulation condition of simultaneous hemorrhage and thrombosis
anosmia impairment or loss of smell
anthracosis the deposition of coal dust in the lungs; asymptomatic pneumoconiosis/black lung
aphonia inability to produce normal speech sounds/loss of voice
asbestosis a lung disease caused by the inhalation of asbestos dust
aspiration drawing in or out by suction
circumoral cyanosis a bluish discoloration around the mouth
dysphonia hoarseness/difficulty in speaking
epistaxis bleeding from the nose
exsanguination excessive loss of blood from a part
hemoptysis spitting up blood
laryngectomy surgical removal of voice organ/larynx
lymphadenitis inflammation of lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy disease of lymph nodes
pneumoconiosis chronic respiratory disease caused by inhaling metallic or mineral particles
rhonchi a wheezing or snoring sound heard upon auscultation of the chest
silicosis a disease of the lungs caused by the inhaling of siliceous particles
sinusotomy incision into the sinus
stridor high-pitched respiratory sound caused by obstruction of air passageway
syncytial virus a type of minute parasitic microorganism
tachypnea rapid and shallow respirations
sinusitis acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses
pharyngitis acute or chronic inflammation or infection of the pharynx
nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumors that arise in the area of the pharynx that opens into the nasal cavity anteriorly and the oropharynx inferiorly. They are unique among head and neck cancers in that they are not strongly linked to tobacco use. Instead
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
deviated septum a crooked nasal septum
nasal polyps benign growths that form as a consequence of distended mucous membranes protruding into the nasal cavity
atelectasis airless or collapsed state of the pulmonary tissue
pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood clot or other material lodges in and occludes an artery in the pulmonary circulation
pneumonia infective inflammation of the lungs
pulmonary abscess area of contained infectious material in the lung
Legionellosis/Legionaires' disease pneumonia caused by bacterium Legionella pneumophila
respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia inflammatory and infectious condition of the lungs
histoplasmosis fungal disease originating in the lungs that is caused by inhalation of dust containing Histoplasma capsulatum
influenza generalized
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/COPD encompasses several obstructive diseases of the lungs rendering patients unable to ventilate the lungs freely
acute/chronic bronchitis inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the bronchi
bronchiectasis permanent
asthma A chronic respiratory disease
pulmonary emphysema chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder characterized by destructive changes in the alveolar walls and irreversible enlargement of alveolar air spaces
pleurisy inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs and lining the pleural cavity
pneumothorax collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity that results in a collapsed or partially collapsed lung
hemothorax accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity
flail chest condition of instability in the chest wall caused by multiple rib fractures; the sternum also may be fractured
pulmonary tuberculosis chronic
infectious mononucleosis/Epstein-Barr virus infection acute herpesvirus infection/also known as glandular fever
adult respiratory distress syndrome severe pulmonary congestion characterized by acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia
sarcoidosis multisystem granulomatous (small lesions of inflamed cells) disorder most comonly detected in the lungs
aphasia a nerve defect that results in loss of speech
aura a sensation or phenomenon that signals the onset of an epileptic seizure or a migraine
autonomic refers to the nervous system that has two divisions; sympathetic/parasympathetic
cephalalgia pain in the head; headache
chorea ceaseless occurrence of involuntary muscular movements of the limbs or facial muscles
concussion injury to the brain or spinal cord due to jarring from a blow
contusion an injury
craniotomy incision into the skull
demyelination loss of the myelin sheath of a nerve
diplopia double vision
epidural an anesthetic injected into the epidural space around the spine
fasciculation involuntary contraction or twitching of muscles
hematoma localized swelling filled with blood due to a broken blood vessel
hemiparesis paralysis affecting one side of the body
hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body
neurotransmitter a chemical released by the terminal end fibers of an axon
paraplegia paralysis of both lower limbs due to spinal disease or injury
parasympathetic the division of the autonomic nervous system mediated by the release of acetylcholine
paresis partial paralysis
quadriplegia paralysis of all four limbs or of the entire body below the neck
degenerative disk disease deterioration/degeneration of an intervertebral disk causing pain in the area served by the spinal nerves of the involved disk space/natural part of aging
herniated/bulging disk rupture of the nucleus pulposus through the annular wall of the disk and into the spinal canal
sciatic nerve injury pathologic condition brought on by trauma
epilepsy chronic brain disorder
Parkinson's disease common
Huntington's disease hereditary degenerative disease of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia; progressive atrophy of the brain occurs
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Lou Gehrig disease progressive
transient global amnesia total loss of memory for a duration of 1 to 6 hours
peripheral neuritis/neuropathy degeneration of peripheral nerves
trigeminal neuralgia/tic douloureux pain of the area innervated by the fifth cranial nerve
Bell's palsy disorder of the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve) that causes a sudden onset of weakness or paralysis of facial muscles
meningitis inflammation of the meninges
encephalitis inflammation of the brain tissue
Guillain-Barre syndrome acute
brain abscess collection of pus
poliomyelitis/post-polio syndrome viral infection of the anterior horn cells of the gray matter of the spinal cord and causes a selective destruction of the motor neurons
transient ischemic attack (TIA) temporary episodes with a duration of less than 24 hours of impaired neurologic functioning caused by an inadequate flow of blood to a portion of the brain
spinal stenosis narrowing of the spinal canal or nerve root foramen
avulsion separation of a body part by tearing
bursae a sac containing synovia
calcitonin thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
crepitation A grating or crackling sensation or sound
fascia a fibrous membrane that covers
hematopoiesis pertaining to the production and the development of blood cells
meniscus a disk of cartilage between the articulating ends of the bones in a joint
metatarsophalangeal pertaining to the metatarsus and phalanges of the toe
ossification development of bone
osteogenesis formation of bone tissue
synovial pertaining to a lubrication fluid around a joint
tenorrhaphy suture of a tendon
fibromyalgia chronic pain condition associated with stiffness and tenderness that affects muscles
lordosis exaggerated inward curvature of the spine (swayback)
kyphosis abnormal outward curvature of the spine (convexity backward)
scoliosis lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine
osteoarthritis arthritis that results from the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints
lyme disease infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium injected from the gut of ticks from biting human skin affecting skin
bursitis inflammation of a bursa (tiny fluid-filled sac that functions as a gliding surface to reduce friction between tissues of the body)
osteomyelitis serious infection of bone that requires aggressive antibiotic treatment
gout chronic disorder of uric acid metabolism that manifests as an acute
paget's disease chronic bone disorder that typically results in enlarged
marfan's syndrome group of inherited conditions featuring abnormal connetive tissue with weakness of blood vessels and excessive length of the extremities
osteoporosis condition characterized by the loss of the normal bone density
osteomalacia and rickets disease characterized by a defective mineralization of the bones
hallux valgus (bunion) localized area of enlargement of the inner portion of the metatarsophalangeal joint at the base of the big toe
hallux rigidus stiff big toe that develops as a result of degeneration of the cartilage of the first metatarsophalangeal joint
hammer toe toe condition in which the toe bends upward like a claw because of an abnormal flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint/occurring in any of the four lesser toes
fractures broken bones caused by stress on the bone resulting from a traumatic insult to the musculoskeletal system
strain/sprain injured tendon
dislocation forcible displacement of a bone from its joint
adhesive capsulitis condition in which a shoulder is significantly limited in its range of motion as a result of inflammation
severed tendon a tendon torn completely in two and thus prevents the muscle from performing its function of moving a body part
shin splints painful condition involving inflammation of the periosteum
plantar fasciitis inflammatory response at the bottom of the heel bone. There the flat tissue that acts like a bowstring for the arch of the foot attaches to the bottom of the heel
ganglion benign sac-like swelling or cyst that is filled with a colorless
torn meniscus crack or fissure that is usually a result of wear or injury
rotator cuff tears tears in any of the rotator cuff tendons limiting the function of the shoulder
amblyopia reduced vision in an eye without a detectable organic lesion
blepharitis Inflammation of the eyelids
cryotherapy theraputic use of cold
diplopia double vision
iridotomy incision of the iris
labyrinth the internal ear
macula a small spot/colored area
meibomian a sebacious gland on the posterior margin of each eyelid
myringotomy surgical incision of the eardrum performed to release fluid or pus from the middle ear
otoscopy visual examination of the ear using an otoscope
retinopathy non-inflammatory eye disorders
seborrhea excessive secretion of sebum from sebacceous glands
sensorineural pertaining to a sensory nerve
tinnitus ringing or buzzing in the ears
tonometry measurement of intraocular pressure
tympanoplasty Surgical repair or reconstruction of the middle ear
vertigo loss of equalibrium or sensation of instability; dizziness
hyperopia farsightedness
myopia nearsightedness
astigmatism a refractive error of the eye in which parallel rays of light from an external source do not converge on a single focal point on the retina
presbyopia Inability of the eye to focus sharply on nearby objects
nystagmus a congenital or acquired persistent
strabismus cross-eyed
hordeolum an infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid
chalazion a small sebaceous cyst of the eyelid resulting when a Meibomian gland is blocked
keratitis inflammation of the cornea
entropion The infolding of the margin of an eyelid
ectropion rolling outward of the margin of an eyelid
blepharoptosis Drooping of the upper eyelid
conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva
corneal abrasion/ulcer painful loss of surface epethelium
episcleritis/scleritis inflammation of the episclera (external surface of the sclera)/inflammation of the deeper sclera
cataract when the natural lens of the eye becomes opacified (cloudy)
glaucoma damage to the optic nerve
macular degeneration progressive deterioration of the macula of the retina
diabetic retinopathy disorder of the retinal blood vessels
retinal detachment elevation (separation) of the retina from the choroid
uveitis inflammation of the uveal tract
exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs
impacted cerumen atypical accumulation of cerumen in the outer ear canal
infective otitis externa inflammation of the external ear canal
swimmer's ear inflammation and resulting infection of the outer canal after water has been entrapped during swimming
otitis media inflammation of the normally air-filled middle ear with the accumulation of fluid behind the eardrum/unitlaterally or bilaterally
otosclerosis formation of new bone about the stapes or cochlea
meniere's disease chronic disease of the inner ear that affects the labyrinth
benign paroxysmal positional vertigo vestibular system disorder/patient complains of his/her head spinning
labyrinthitis inflammation/infection of the inner ear
ruptured tympanic membrane any type of tear or injury to the eardrum/possibly resulting from pressure
cholesteatoma pocket of skin cells
mastoiditis acute/chronic inflammation of the mastoid bone
sensorineural hearing loss deafness/occupational hearing loss
acidosis pathological condition from an abnormal increase in the level of hydrogen ion in the body (decrease in Ph) resulting from the accumulation of acid or loss of the alkaline reserve
corticotropin hormone excreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary
epiphyseal long end of a bone where the growth occurs
gonadotropin hormone that stimulates the testes and ovaries to function
hyperglycemia increase in the normal blood glucose level
hyperkalemia a greater than normal amount of potasium in the blood
hypocalcemia low calcium levels in the blood
hypothalamus a portion of the diencephalon
panhypopituitarism condition in which the entire pituitary gland ceases to function/is not producing any pituitary hormones
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyphagia excessive eating
polyuria excretion of abnormally large amounts of urine
pruritis itching
radioimmunoassay test that measures minute amounts of antibodies or antigens by the use of radioactive substances
somatotropin growth hormone (GH) secreted by the anterior pituitary
thyrotoxicosis toxic condition caused by hyperactivity of the thyroid gland
thyrotropin thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
thyroxine the thyroid gland hormone that regulates the metabolic rate of the body
triiodothyronine hormone that helps regulate growth and development
vasopressin A hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that constricts blood vessels
gigantism abnormal pattern of overgrowth and stature
acromegaly chronic metabolic condition of adults caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH)
dwarfism abnormal underdevelopment of the body (hypopituitarism) occurring in children
diabetes insipidus disturbance of water metabolism resulting in extreme thirst and excessive secretion of dilute urine
simple goiter any enlargement of the thyroid gland
hashimoto's thyroiditis chronic disease of the immune system that attacks the thyroid gland
hyperthyroidism overactivity of the thyroid gland
Grave's disease occurs when the entire thyroid gland grows excessively
hypothyroidism underactivity of the thyroid gland
cretinism hypothyroidism developing in infancy or early childhood
myxedema hypothyroidism developing in the older child or adult
thyroid cancer cancer occurring in the thyroid gland
hyperparathyroidism condition caused by overactivity of one or more of the four parathyroid glands and results in overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
hypoparathyroidism condition in which the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands is greatly reduced
Cushing's syndrome condition of chronic hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex
Addison's disease partial/complete failure of adrenocortical function
diabetes mellitus chronic disorder of carbohydrate
gestational diabetes type III diabetes/condition of damaged ability to process carbohydrates that has its onset during pregnancy
precocious puberty in boys onset of puberty before the age of nine (in boys)
precocious puberty in girls onset of puberty before the age of eight (in girls)
hormones chemical messengers classified as either amino acids (proteins) or steroids
acetabulum the cup-shaped cavity in which the ball-shaped head of the femur articulates
acyanotic absence of a bluish appearance of the skin and mucous membranes
adenosarcoma a cancerous glandlike tumor
amniocentesis A procedure in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is drawn out of the uterus through a needle inserted in the abdomen.
anencephalic congenital absence of part or all of the brain.
ataxic loss of coordination of the muscles
azoospermia an absence of spermatoza in the semen
bicornate having two horns or horn-shaped parts
contracture immobility of muscles or a joint caused by shortening or wasting of tissue or muscle fibers
dysplasia marked by abnormal adult cells
dystrophy any of a number of disorders characterized by weakening
electromyography an electrodiagnosis assessment of the activity of skeletal muscles
foramen ovale An opening in the septum between the right and left atria of the heart
meconium 1st stool of a newborn
meninges the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord
neonates newborn babies
pyelography radiography of the pelvis
pylorus the narrow part of the stomach toward the duodenum
stenosis a narrowing or stricture of a passage or vessel
syncope lightheadedness
tachypnea rapid and shallow respirations
trisomy one or more than the normal number of chromosomes
congenital anomalies mental or physical problems present at birth/likely to occur in multiple
infant respiratory distress syndrome hyaline membrane disease/patient suffers acute hypoxemia caused by infiltrates within the alveoli
necrotizing enterocolitis acute inflammatory process caused by ischemic necrosis of the mucosal lining of the small intestine
Down syndrome congenital form of mild to severe mental retardation accompanied by characteristic facial features and distinctive physical abnormalities
cerebral palsy most common crippler of children/congenital
muscular dystrophy progressive degeneration and weakening of the skeletal muscles/Duchenne MD is most common type and is usually diagnosed before 5 years of age
spina bifida group of malformations of the spine in which the posterior portion of the bony canal containing the spinal cord is completely /partially absent
hydrocephalus central spinal fluid is increased greatly or the circulation of CSF is blocked
ventricular septal defect most common congenital cardiac disorder/abnormal opening between the right and left ventricles
patent ductus arteriosus ductus fails to functionally close
coarctation of the aorta aortic lumen is narrowed which causes partial obstruction of blood flow through the aorta
atrial septal defect abnormal opening between right/left atria
tetralogy of Fallot combination of four congenital heart defects: (1) ventricular septal defect
transposition of the great arteries aorta and pulmonary arteries are reversed resulting in two closed-looped circulatory systems
clubfoot nontraumatic deformity of the newborn foot in which the anterior half of the foot is adducted and inverted
congenital hip dysplasia an abnormal development of the hip joint that ranges from an unstable joint to dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabulum
cleft lip/palate congential birth defect consisting of one or more clefts in the upper lip. Cleft palate is a hole in the middle of the roof of the mouth
pyloric stenosis gastric obstruction associated with norrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the exit of the stomach
hirschsprung's disease impairment of intestinal motility that causes obstruction of the distal colon
cystic fibrosis inherited disorder/chronic dysfunction of the exocrine glands affecting multiple body systems; most common fatal genetic disease
phenylketonuria inborn error in the metabolism of amino acids that causes brain damage and mental retardation when not corrected
chickenpox highly contagious
diphtheria acute communicable disease that causes necrosis of the mucous membrane in the respiratory tract
mumps acute communicable viral disease causing inflammation and swelling of one or both parotid glands
pertussis whooping cough/highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract
measles acute
rubella highly contagious viral disease similar to measles clinically
tetanus acute
sudden infant death syndrome sudden
anticholinesterase any enzyme that counteracts the action of the choline esters
autoimmune an immune response resulting in the presence of self-antigens or autoantigens on the surface of certain body cells; may result in allergy or autoimune disease
candidiasis any of a variety of infections caused by fungi of the genus Candida
collagen major supporting element
hematopoietic pertaining to the formation of blood or blood cells
hypogammaglobulinemia a below normal concentration of gamma globulin in the blood associated with a decreased resistance to infection
immunocompetent the immune system has the ability to defend the body against disease
immunodeficiency the diminished ability of the immune system to react with appropriate cellular immunity response; often the result of loss of immunoglobulins or aberrance of B- or T-cell lymphocytes
immunoelectrophoresis a technique used to separate and allow identification of complex proteins
immunogen substance capable of stimulating an immune response
immunoglobulin a protein that can act as an antibody
immunosuppressive having the property of suppressing the body's immune response to antigens
keratoconjunctivitis dryness of the conjunctiva resulting from a decrease in lacrimal function
lymph a mostly clear
lymphadenopathy disease of the lymph nodes
lymphocyte one of two types (B-cells and T-cells) of leukocytes (white blood cells) found in blood
macrophage Any of various large white blood cells that play an essential immunologic role
phagocyte cell that surrounds and digests certain particles (bacteria
phagocytosis the process by which cells surround and digest certain particles
allergen antigenic substance capable of producing an allergic response in the body
anaphylaxis a severe systemic allergic response characterized by redness
antigen any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies
asymptomatic without symptoms
auscultation a diagnostic techniques of listening for sounds within the body
cachexia a profound and marked wasting disorder
carcinogenic substance that produces cancer or that causes transformation of a normal cell to a cancerous one
chromosome structure in the nucleus of a cell that functions in the transmission of genetic information
genotype genetic code
homeostasis a state of equilibrium within the body
hospice unique concept of care development to help patients and their families deal with life-threatening illness.
ischemia holding back or obstructing the flow of blood
karyotype a picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell
metastasis spreading of a malignant disease or pathogenic microorganisms from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it
mutation a variation or change in genetic structure
nociceptor nerve that receives and transmits painful stimuli
oncogene a gene in a virus that can prompt a cell to turn malignant
pathogenesis the development of disease; pathologic mechanisms
phagocytic the process by which cells surround and digest certain particles
somatoform psychogenic symptoms without an underlying disease process
Created by: doctorc501