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Biology ch 15,16

What is the name o f Dawins boat?? HMS Beagle
What were two animals that Darwin found adapted to the enviroment?? Turtles and Finches
What was so different about the finches? Their Beaks
How many years did Hutton think the earth was? thousands
What did Darwin notice about the finches and tortoises on the Galapagos Islands? Each island had a slightly different version of the same species.
Darwin noticed that the differences in animals on the Galapagos Islands helped them to survive
Which scientists suggested that the Earth is many millions of years old? Hutton and Lyell
Of Lyell and Hutton, which one tried to explain how rock formations change over time? Hutton
Which scientist proposed that animals can pass on adaptations to their offspring. Lamarck
Lamarck said that an animal’s body can change due to its... actions
An acquired characteristic is... a trait an animal gained through actions in their lifetime
What was Darwin’s book called? On the Origin of Species
Which scientist suggested that human population would grow so much there wouldn’t be enough food? Malthus
Did Darwin publish his findings immediately, or after many years? after many years
Who wrote an essay about evolution that motivated Darwin to go ahead and publish his book? Alfred Russel Wallace
What is the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce where it lives? fitness
When an animal has body parts that have no use for them anymore, those parts are called... vestigial structures
When animals have body parts that are very similar to each other, those parts are called.... homologous structures
An adaptation is an inherited characteristic that helps... that animal survive
True or False: Adaptations are only physical. False; they could also be a behavior
When fossils and living animals have very similar body parts, scientists assume that they have... a common ancestor
What did Darwin believe was one of the biggests evidences of evolution? the fossil record
The percentage of black cats in a cat population is an example of... relative frequency of an allele
Two big sources of genetic variation are... mutations genetic shuffling during meiosis
What is a single-gene trait? A trait that has one gene (two alleles) that controls it.
What is a trait called that is controlled by two or more genes? polygenic traits
When does directional selection occur? When individuals have more fitness on one side of the peak.
When does stabilizing selection occur? When individuals have more fitness at the peak.
When does disruptive selection occur? When individuals have more fitness on both sides of the peak, but not at the peak.
A random change in allele or trait frequency over time is called... genetic drift
What are the five conditions required to maintain genetic equilibrium? random mating large population no immigration or emmigration no mutations no natural selection
What is the term meaning the formation of a new species? speciation
What is the definition of “species”? A group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Behavioral isolation, geographic isolation and temporal isolation can all lead to... reproductive isolation...the inability of species to interbreed and produce offspring
Two birds having different types of songs to attract mates is a type of which isolation? behavioral isolation
When two populations become separated by bodies of water or mountains, it is what type of isolation? geographic isolation
If flowers produce pollen at different points of the Spring season, it is what type of isolation? temporal isolation