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Kasey2004 Flashcards

Chapter 2

long bones are longer than they are wide; they have a shaft and two ends; ex. humerus & femur
short bones are almost as long as they are wide; they can be described as cube shaped; ex. wrist & ankle bones
sesamoid bones a special kind of short bone; ex. patella
flat bones are flat, thin and sometimes curved; ex. ribs & sternum (breastbone)
irregular bones have various shapes and do not fit into the other categories; ex. vertebrae
diaphysis (dign-AFF-ih-sis) the shaft of the long bone
compact bone the external hard layer of bone that forms the hard outer shell
epiphysis (eh-PIFF-ih-is) the end of the long bone, is often wider than the diaphysis
proximal epiphysis upper end of the long bone
distal epiphysis lower end of the long bone
epiphyseal line the area between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
articular cartilage covers the end of the epiphysis and provides cushion during movement of the joint
periosterum white membrane covering the bone except at the joint surface
yellow bone marrow found in long bones, stores fat
red bone marrow found in long bones, produces red blood cells
arthr/o joint
chrondr/o cartilage
clavicul/o clavicle
coccyg/o coccyx, tailbone
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
kyph/o humpback
lamin/o lamina, thin flat plate, part of vertebral arch
lord/o swayback
lumb/o lower back
metacarp/o hand bones
metatars/o foot bones
myel/o bone marrow, or spinal cord
my/o muscle
myos/o muscle
muscul/o muscle
oste/o bone
pelv/o pelvis, hipbone
rhin/o nose
sacr/o sacrum
scoli/o crooked, bent, twisted
spondyl/o vertebra
stern/o sternum, breastbone
ten/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
vertebr/o vertebra
algia pain
blast immature
clasis surgical fracture
gram record
graphy technique or recording/making and xray
malacia softening
olisthesis slipping
oma tumor, mass
osis abnormal condition
plasty surgical repair
scope instrument to visually examine
scopy process of visual examination
tomy process of cutting, incision
trophy nourishment/development
frontal/coronal plane divides the body into front and back portions
sagittal plane divides the body into left and right sections
transverse/axial plane divides the body into upper and lower sections
anterior structure or part is facing front
distal body part farthest away from point of origin
dorsal pertaining or referring to the back
inferior toward the feet or below
lateral away from midline of the body
medial toward the midline or middle of the body
posterior toward the back or pertaining to the back of the body
prone lying face down on the abdomen
proximal body part nearest the point of origin
superficial near the surface
superior toward the head, above
supine lying face up on the back
ventral pertaining to the front
axial skeleton that is made up of the spinal column, skull & rib cage
appendicular skeleton that is comprised of the bones of the arms, hands, legs, feet, shoulders & pelvis
frontal bone forehead, acts as protection for the eyes and the brain
parietal bone form the top and upper sides of the head
temporal bone is on each of the head
occipital bone forms the back and base of the head
maxilla upper jaw bone
mandible lower jaw bone and is the only moveable bone in the skull
zygomatic bone cheekbones, also protect the outer part of the eyes
cervical vertebrae the first seven vertebrae in the neck
thoracic vertebrae twelve vertebrae of the spinal column
lumbar vertebrae lower back vertebrae, there are five
sacrum/coccyx result of the fusion of individual bones during childhood
coccyx tailbone, the last section of the vertebrae
intervertebral disk made of cartilage separates the vertebrae
humerus the upper are bone
radius lower arm bone on the thumb side
ulna lower are bone on outer side (little finger side)
carpals wrist bone
metacarpals bones in the palm of the hand
phalanges bones of the fingers and toes
phalanx individual section of the fingers bones
clavicle collarbone
scapula shoulder blade
femur thighbone, longest bone in the body
tibia larger lower leg bone, shin bone
fibula smaller, slender bone of the lower leg
patella kneecap
tarsals ankle bones
calcaneus heel bone
metatarsals bones of the foot
fracture injury to a bone where the tissue of a bone is broken
greenstick fracture fracture of a bone that may crack under pressure but not break entirely
simple/closed fracture closed fracture when the bone breaks completely, the skin remains intact
compound/open fracture occurs when the bone protrudes through the skin
impacted fracture bone fractures and the ends are wedged into each other
comminuted fracture more than one fracture line in a bone
spiral fracture sever corkscrew twisting of a bone
Colle's fracture fracture just above the wrist, at the distal end of the radius; occurs often in children after falling on outstretched hand
pathological fracture fracture occurring due to an underlying disease process that weakens the bone
lordosis (lord/o = swayback; osis = abnormal condition) exaggerated forward curve of the lumbar section of the vertebral column
kyphosis (kyph/o = humpback; osis = abnormal condition) outward curvature of the upper section of the vertebral column
scoliosis (scoli/o = crooked or bent; osis = abnormal condition) lateral curvature of the spinal column usually in the thoracic region
herniated disk the intervertebral disk ruptures causing it to protrude, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots. Also called slipped disk or ruptured disk.
myleoma tumor of the bone marrow
osteomalacia softening of the bone
osteoporosis loss of bone mass or bone density
osteosarcoma malignant tumor of the bone
spondylitis inflammation of the vertebrae
Created by: Kasey2004