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Lecture Unit 2

Two classes of receptors General senses-temperature, pain, touch, stretch, & pressure. Controlled by other nerves. Special senses-gustation, olfaction, vision, equilibrium, & audition. Rely on cranial nerves.
Chemoreceptors Detect chemical molecules
Termoreceptors Detect changes in temperatures
Photoreceptors Detect changes in light. Vision.
Mechanoreceptors For hearing & balance. Detect mechanical changes like touch, vibration, & stretch. ex. Proprioceptors detect the position & the state of contraction of muscles.
Baroreceptors Detect changes in blood pressure w/i body structures.
Nociceptors Detect pain
General Sense: Tactile Receptors Most numerous type of receptor. Mechanoreceptors that react to touch, pressure, & vibration. Located in the dermis & hypodermis.
Special Sense: Gustation Taste buds. Papillae: Filiform, Fungiform, Vallate (Circumvallate), Foliate.
Taste buds Microscopic chemoreceptors on tongue, posterior palate, cheeks, pharynx, epiglottis.
Papillae Macroscopic structures on tongue that may contain taste buds. Help with friction. Move food around. 4 types: filiform, fungiform, vallate (circumvallate), foliate.
Filiform Anterior 2/3 tongue. No taste buds.
Fungiform Tip and sides of tongue, only few taste buds.
Vallate (Circumvallate) Back of tongue, larges, least numerous type, contain most taste buds.
Foliate Lateral tongue, used during infancy and early childhood.
Taste Bud Cytology Gustatory cells, Supporting cells, Basal cells. After age 50, the ability to distinguish taste begins to decline. Be able to label picture.
Gustatory cells Chemoreceptor cells. Replaced every 7-10 days. Gustatory microvillus-taste hair.
Supporting cells Insulate gustatory cells from each other & surrounding epithelium.
Basal cells Immature; replace other two cell types.
Gustatory Sensations 5 flavors detected over broad regions of the tongue: Salty, Sweet, Sour, Bitter, Umami (Savory). Facial nerve 7 innervates anterior 2/3 of tongue. Glossopharyngeal nerve 9 innervates posterior 1/3 of tongue.
Special Sense: Olfaction Olfactory neurons-chemoreceptors, bipolar. Supporting cells-surround olfactory neurons. Basal cells-stem cells for renewal of others. 50-60 different primary odors & thousands of chemical stimuli can be recognized. Label pic.
Vision Special Sense
Conjunctiva Provides a superficial covering over the eye's anterior exposed surface. Translucent connective tissue. Connects eyelid to eye. Function: Protect Brain-trough catches stuff.
Eyebrows, eyelashes, & palpebrae (eyelid) Prevent foreign objects from coming into contact with the eye.
Lacrimal glands Keep the exposed surface moist, clean, & lubricated. Superior & lateral to eye. Tears created. Evaporate in nose.
Eye structures Lens, Pupil, Anterior chamber (filled with thin aqueous humor-water like-make new a lot), Posterior chamber (filled with thin aqueous humor), Vitreous chamber (filled w/ thick vitreous humor-jelly-don't make a lot of new), Optic nerve.
Cataracts Major cause of blindness. Lens becomes opaque. Causes: aging, diabetes, UV exposure, glaucoma, eye infections. Treatment: artificial lens.
Regions of the eye Fibrous tunic, vascular tunic, neural tunic.
Fibrous tunic Most superficial. Sclera (white), Cornea.
Vascular tunic Choroid, Cilliary body (thicker portion of choroid-anterior), Ciliary zonules-suspensory ligaments. Iris.
Neural tunic Retina-photoreceptors.
Photoreceptors Neural layer of retina. Rod cells and Cone cells
Rod cells Function in dim light. Don't provide sharp vision or color vision. 100 million per eye. Use in the dark. More peripheral. Black and white.
Cone cells Operate best in bright light. Provide high acuity color vision. 10 million per eye. In the center. Need bright light.
Regions of the Retina Macula lutea, fovea centralis, optic disc
Macula lutea contains mostly cones
Fovea centralis Contains only cones. Maximal visual acuity.
Optic disc Contains no rods or cones. Axons & ganglion cells converge to exit eye. Blind spot-where nerves enter. Brain fills in blank using other eye.
Emmetropia Normal vision
Hyperopia Farsightedness. Eyeball is too short so near objects are blurry.
Myopia Nearsightedness. Eyeball is too long so far objects are blurry.
Eye development Eye buds directly off the brain.
Special sense: Equilibrium & Hearing. Divisions of the Ear: External ear, Middle ear, Inner ear.
External Ear Structures Defined from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. External auditory meatus: narrow external opening prevents large objects from entering middle ear. Ceruminous glands produce cerumen. Cerumen+dead skin cells=earwax.
Earwax Helps reduce infection by impeding microorganism growth. Best bug repellent.
Middle Ear Structures (Inside Petrous Part) Air filled tympanic cavity. Tympanic membrane. Tensor tympani muscle & stapedius. Auditory ossicles-malleus, Incus, Stapes. Oval (vestibular) window. Round (cochlear) window. Auditory (Eustachian) tube connects ear to nasopharynx.
Inner Ear Structures (3 regions for balance) VESTIBULE-Utricle & saccule (bags). Detect acceleration/deacc. Helps sense equilibrium. SEMICIRCULAR CANALS-detect rotational movements. Help sense equilibrium. COCHLEA-senses audition-continues hearing. VESTIBULAR & COCHLEAR NERVES.
Spiral Organ of Corti Label! Fluid detects waves. Membranes move-detected by cochlear nerve. To temporal lobe. Cochlear nerve, Scala vestibuli-perilymph, vestibular membrane, scala tympani-perilymph, cochlear duct,-endolymph, cochlear hair cells-mechanoreceptors, tectorial mem
Sound wave pathways through the ear part 1 1. Sound waves enter external aud meatus & make tymp membrane vibrate. 2. Tymp membrane vibrations causes movement by auditory ossicles; sound waves amplified. Stapes moves w/i oval window; pressure waves generated.
Sound wave pathways through the ear part 2 3. Pressure waves begin at oval window & travel through scala vestibuli. 4. High & upper medium-frequency pressure waves in scala vestibuli cause vestibular mem to vibrate-pressure wave formation in endolymph of cochlear duct.
Sound wave pathways through the ear part 3 4 cont. Pressure waves displace region of basilar membrane. Hair cells in spiral organ are distorted-stimulus in cochlear branch of CN 8. 5. Remaining pressure wave vibrations transferred to the scala tympani & exit the inner ear via the round window.
Cochlear Implant Surgical implant. Sound waves received at antenna, transmitter, & receiver. Turned into electrical impulses. Lead goes to the cochlea. Electrical impulses relayed through lead & stimulate cochlear nerve directly adjacent to cochlea.
Otitis Media An infection of the middle ear. More common in children because their auditory tubes are horizontal-bacteria from throat infection can migrate through into middle ear. Less common in adults because their auditory tubes are more vertical.
Gustation Gustatory cell, chemoreceptor, CN 7 & 9.
Olfaction Olfactory neuron, chemoreceptor, CN 1.
Vision Rods & cones, photoreceptor, CN 2.
Audition Cochlear hair cells, mecanoreceptor, CN 8.
Equilibrium Hair cells, mechanoreceptor, CN 8.
Created by: punkaloo