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Grade 7 Chapter 6 Life Science Evolution-Evidence of Change

_______ are the naturally preserved remains, imprints, or traces of organisms that lived long ago. Fossils
Examples of fossils include _____, shells, and footprints. bones
A _______ is a scientist who studies fossils. paleontologist
The process of _______ is part of an organism’s life cycle. decomposition
Decomposition breaks things down into _____ that can be used by other organisms. substances
Organisms that consume and help break down dead organisms are known as _______. decomposers
_______ eat dead organisms. Scavengers
To become a _____ , a dead organism must be well protected from decomposers, scavengers, and environmental factors. fossil
Organisms with hard structures such as _____, bones, and shells are more likely to become fossils. teeth
Fossils only form under _____ conditions. certain
In the _______ process, minerals are deposited in the empty spaces of dead organisms. permineralization
Permineralization forms strong, _____ fossils. rock-like
Most _____ become fossilized through permineralization. bones
The details of the organism’s hard structure are often ______. preserved
_____ wood refers to trees that are fossilized by permineralization. Petrified
In the _______ process, the hard parts of an organism are dissolved and replaced with minerals. replacement
The original microscopic details of the organism are partially or totally ______. destroyed
Only the ____ of the original organism remains. shape
______ occurs when a dead organism is quickly buried under conditions without oxygen. Carbonization
A thin film of _____ is left behind when hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen leave a dead organism’s remains. carbon
The carbon film preserves an _____ or shape of the original organism on a rock. image
Many ____ fossils are preserved as carbon films. plant
Soft animal materials such as ____, fur, and feathers can be preserved as carbon films. skin
The preservation of an impression or indentation of an organism is a ____ or a cast. mold
Mold and cast fossils contain ___ remaining parts of the original organism. no
A cast is formed when a ___ fills with sediment that hardens into rock. mold
Casts are formed entirely from material ___ than the original organism. other
In an ____ ____ fossil, none of the hard or soft structures of the organism have been altered or replaced. original material
The organism is preserved in its ____ form. original
Much of the evidence for ____ comes from fossils. evolution
Fossils provide a ____ of the different organisms that lived in the past. record
___ fossils are found in deeper sedimentary rock layers. Older
The ___ ____ is all of the known fossils, their placements in rocks, and their positions in time. fossil record
The fossil record supports the ____ of plants and animals. evolution
The fossil record has ___ in it. gaps
Most of the species that ever lived on Earth are now _____. extinct
Fossil evidence can sometimes be used to determine if an organism lived ____ or in groups, the kind of food it ate, and the type of environment it lived in. alone
The study of the similarities and differences in the structures of organisms is known as ___ ___. comparative anatomy
In 1976, scientists found fossils of four-winged true flies that confirmed an earlier prediction that true flies and scorpion flies have a common ____. ancestor
Evidence from the study and comparison of the structures of ____ organisms with those of fossils supports the pattern of evolution. living
Parts of organisms that are similar in origin and structure are called ___ ___. homologous structures
Homologous structures are the result of ____. evolution
Homologous structures may indicate how closely two or more species share common _____. ancestors
___ ___ appear similar, but have different ancestral origins. Analogous structures
Examples of analogous structures include the ___ of birds and insects. wings
Analogous structures result when similar ____ conditions produce similar natural selection outcomes over time on remotely related organisms. environmental
____ structures are structures that have no function in their present-day form. Vestigial
Scientists hypothesize that the vestigial structures once functioned in an ____. ancestor
_____ is the science of the development of embryos from fertilization to birth. Embryology
Similar patterns of embryo development provide clues to the _____ relationships among organisms. evolutionary
Embryos of different ____ have similar early developmental stages. vertebrates
The ___ ___ of vertebrates develop into facial and neck structures. pharyngeal pouches
The similarities of species are best explained by common ___ and by evolution through natural selection. ancestors
____ data supports the theory of evolution through natural selection. Molecular
Differences in the cytochrome c molecules of different organisms are ____ to have developed independently from different ancestral lines. unlikely
Earthquakes are evidence that changes to Earth’s ___ ___ are still occurring. lithospheric plates
As lithospheric plates ___, they create environmental changes for the organisms that live on and near them. move
Environmental changes caused by moving plates can lead to the development of and extinction of ____. species
___ ___ occurs when populations of species are divided or separated by a physical barrier. Geographic isolation
Geographic isolation can occur when lithospheric plates collide and form _____. mountains
___ and large bodies of water can also cause geographic isolation of species. Rivers
Once separated by geographic isolation, species may follow different ____ paths if they are in different environments over time. evolutionary
Darwin’s observations in ____ and Ecuador led to the idea of evolution by natural selection. Galápagos
When species evolve independently under similar conditions and develop structural and functional similarities, the process is known as ___ ___. convergent evolution
Convergent evolution results in very distantly related species that appear ____. similar
Geographic isolation leads to closely related species that appear ___. different
____, a Greek philosopher, was one of the first people to put organisms into categories. Aristotle
In the mid-eighteenth century, Swedish botanist ___ ___ developed a classification system that grouped organisms based on similar physical structures. Carolus Linnaeus
A ___ includes organisms that have the greatest number of traits in common and that can breed to produce fertile offspring. species
Only ___ are subject to natural selection and evolve. species
Linnaeus developed a system for ___ species that is still used today. naming
Each species has a ____ scientific name. two-word
The first word in the scientific name identifies the ___ to which the species belongs. genus
Organisms are ___ into levels. classified
The order of classification levels (from most general to most specific) is kingdom, ___, class, order, family, genus, and species. phylum
There are ___ different kingdoms. six
Basic features, such as whether an organism is single-celled or multicellular, are used to define each ___. kingdom
____, the modern study of classification, uses DNA and molecular biology to identifyrelated organisms. Systematics
The more shared __ sequences two species have, the more recent an ancestor they are likely to share. DNA
A ___ is the sequence of a sample of 1,000 base pairs of DNA. haplotype
DNA ____ measures the differences in overall DNA between two organisms. hybridization
Prompted by discoveries made in molecular biology, a new level, the ___, is now the highest level, positioned above kingdom. domain
Created by: jnosik