Busy. Please wait.

Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the email address associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know (0)
Know (0)
remaining cards (0)
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Muscle Tissue

Lecture Unit 1

Properties of muscle tissue EXCITABILITY: Responds to stimuli from neurons. CONTRACTILITY: Is able to shorten. Flex muscles, shorter & fatter. ELASTICITY: Can recoil after contraction. EXTENSIBILITY: Capable of stretching during flexion of antagonistic muscles.
Three Types of muscle tissue Cardiac-only in heart, Smooth-all organs, blood vessels, Skeletal-attached to skeleton.
Characteristics of cardiac muscle In myocardium. Fibers Y shaped/branched. Uninucleated (small percentage are binucleated). Striated-striped dark and light proteins. Involuntary. Intercalcated discs-junction point between heart cells. Auto-rhythmic-contracts 100b/m w/o nervous system.
Characteristics of smooth muscle In walls of visceral organs. Fusiform shape (wide middle and tapered at each end). Uninucleate. No striations. Involuntary. Fatigue resistant.
Characteristics of skeletal muscle Made of cylindrical muscle cells (myofibers). Fiber-like (long and cylindrical) Multinucleate-from fused myoblasts. Striated. Voluntary. Contains myoglobin-O2 binding pigment. Innervated-neuromuscular junctions. Vascular.
Myoblasts fuse to form a: Skeletal muscle fiber. Myoblasts become multi-nucleated.
Connective tissue wrappings Endomysium, Perimysium, Epimysium, Deep Fascia, All four are continuous with the tendon. Help produce movement.
Endomysium Surrounds each muscle fiber. Areolar and reticular fibers.
Perimysium Surrounds groups of muscle fibers (fascicles). Dense irregular CT.
Epimysium Surrounds whole muscle (group of fascicles). Dense irregular CT.
Deep fascia Surrounds muscle groups. Dense irregular CT. Superficial.
Muscle attachments Tendons, Origin, Insertion.
Tendons Attach muscle to bones, skin, cartilage. Aponeruosis is a flat tendon (ex. galea aponeruotica).
Origin Less movable attachment of muscle.
Insertion More movable attachment of muscle.
Microscopic Anatomy Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasm, Transverse tubules or T-tubules, Sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Sarcolemma Cell membrane
Sarcoplasm Cytoplasm
Transverse tubules or T-tubules Invaginations of sarcolemma. Conduct impulses to deepest regions of cell
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Elaborate smooth ER. Surrounds each myofibril. Stores calcium. Contains terminal cisternae-site of calcium release. Right next to T. tubules.
Order of muscle organization. Largest to smallest 1. Muscle 2. Facicle 3. Myofiber 4. Myofibrils 5. Myofilaments
Myofibrils Found inside of muscle fibers. Shorten during muscle contraction. Long row of repeating segments-sarcomeres. Composed of myofilaments. Organelle.
Myofilaments Composed of thin and thick filaments. Thin filaments: actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. Thick filaments: Myosin. Be able to label all 4. Troponin/Tropomyosin complex=TTC-referred to together. Molecule.
Sarcomeres Functional unit of the skeletal muscle fiber. Responsible for striated appearance of muscle. Defined from z disc (or line) to z disc.
Sliding Filament Theory (Steps 1-3) 1. Nerve impulse causes sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca from terminal cisternae. 2. Ca binds to troponin. 3. Troponin-Tropomyosin complex (TTC) slides off of binding sites on actin.
Sliding Filament Theory (Steps 4-6) 4. Myosin heads (thick filaments) attach to actin (thin fil). 5. Heads swivel inward, pulling the actin toward center of sarcomere. 6. Myosin heads release; process repeated. (Actin-myosin binding powered by ATP & triggered by Ca2+).
Rigor Mortis Death is not an event but a process. Tissues continue to live after the brain, heart, and lungs fail. A few hrs after death, ATP runs out: Myosin cant detach from actin. Calcium cant be taken up by SR. Leads to continual muscle contration.
After Rigor Morits After 15-24 hours the myofibrils begin to deteriorate allowing muscles to relax. Random twitching can occur. Cells live until they run out of oxygen and glucose. Muscle cells live for 1-2 days. Skin/hair can live for a couple of weeks.
Tetanus Caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. Excessive muscle contraction. Stuck contracted, over contracted.
Botulism Caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Muscular paralysis. Under contration. Botox approved by FDA in 2002. Lessen appearance of wrinkles by paralyzing muscles. Effects last for 120 days.
Terminal cisternae dead-end sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum that border T-tubules, calcium is stored here
Created by: punkaloo