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Building Speaker Confindence

method for managing trait anxiety that involves 1. identifying irrational self-talk producing speaker anxiety, 2. develop alternative coping statements to replace irrational thoughts, & 3. practicing using coping statements in stressful situations cognitive restructuring
theory that communication apprehension is a genetically induced behavior that is basically unchangeable communibiological paradigm
Personal Report of Communication Apprehension questionnaire, which is used to determine your level of situational anxiety McCroskey’s PRCA-24
technique in which the mind is used to create a positive, vivid, and detailed mental image of accomplishment positive imagery
way you think and talk about yourself, in a positive or negative way self talk
type of anxiety caused by factors present in specific situation (i.e., speaking before new audience or being graded/critiqued while speaking) situational anxiety
process of identifying reasonable speaking goals, determining the behaviors/skills needed to achieve each goal, & developing procedures for judging the success of each goal skills training
method for managing trait anxiety that utilizes deep muscle relaxation & breathing, & visualization of speaking situations that gradually progress from low anxiety-high anxiety systematic desensitization
internal anxiety individual brings to speaking situation (i.e., feelings of inadequacy when in group/fear of looking like fool in front of others) trait anxiety
reason speaker confidence creates a(n) __ __ is that when we speak we are communicating verbally, visually & vocally positive impression
even though our verbal message may be clear & well-organized, when we are nervous listeners are more likely to focus on __ visual & vocal cues negative
when we are confident & our verbal, visual, & vocal signals are in __ we are more likely to be believed harmony
if we want people to believe us and enhance positive impressions when we speak, we need to manage our __ anxiety
situational anxiety is often referred to as state anxiety
situational anxiety is caused by __ or __ situations new; different
your own anxiety may be situational, trait, or combination of both
any time you become anxious your body gets you ready for action by giving you a bog shot of adrenaline
neither age nor experience completely stops __ anxiety situational
one key to overcoming situational anxiety is considering the symptoms as normal excitement necessary for __ communication dynamic
trait anxiety is also referred to as communication anxiety or apprehension
our genetic makeup, experiences, and how we see current situation __ to cause anxiety interact
those who collectively, ,often feel they are different from other speakers, have history of negative speaking experiences, and consider themselves to have subordinate status to others often have high trait anxiety
assuming we are different from everyone else, because someone doesn't appear to be a certain way perceived differences
allows you to eliminate the the unexpected from the speaking situation practice
La Vella Goodwin, recommends that you "practice your __ __ ahead of time" recovery plans
you should always __ possible questions; preparing & practicing __ for them anticipate; answers
knowing that you are __ __ will ease much of your anxiety well prepared
will help you relax & ensure you are ready to perform at your best warm-up exercises
slows the heart rate & lowers tension, making us feel more in control deep breathing
relaxes the speaker as well as the listener humor
make your __ work to put you & your audience at ease introduction
you should center your energy around getting your __ __, instead of worrying about impressing your audience meaning across
you can make sure your listeners are following/understanding the organization and the points of your speech by following their nonverbal reactions
speakers who concentrate on the __ soon forget about being __ listener; nervous
visual aids give you something to do with __ __ your hands
shift audience attention away from you visual aids
visual aids make it almost impossible to __ what you want to say forget
researchers have found that this is not only beneficial for managing trait anxiety, but helps control situational anxiety as well visualization
positive imagery is also called visualization/mental imagery
one of the first studies on positive imagery investigated its effects on basketball players
1989, sports psychologist, reported that 80-85% of top athletes used positive imagery as part of their training Jim Loehr
imagery that is both seen and felt; can substantially affect brain waves, blood flow, heart rate, skin temp, gastric secretions, and immune response vividly experienced imagery
with __ __ __, you avoid using words have to, ought to, or need to; substitute with words like want to, like to, enjoy to, or choose to positive self talk
step 2 of positive imagery/visualization, is to refocus negative __ __ into positive ones mental pictures
step 1 of positive imagery/visualization, is develop the __ of positive self talk habit
words + vivid mental pictures + feelings = confidence
step 3 of positive imagery/visualization, is do not __ __ to others compare yourself
in step 3 of positive imagery/visualization, your goal is to be the best speaker you can be; you are __ only with yourself competing
studies found that speakers who used visualization exercises __ __ has less communication anxiety than speakers who did not use them or used some other anxiety-reduction method even once
positive imagery is one of the few methods, for reducing anxiety, that you can use without help of trained professional
widest possible combinations of methods is often most effective way to reduce communication apprehension
__ or __, and its effect on you and others around you, is a start to managing anxiety awareness; perception
taking control of __ and anxiety is much easier once you __ and take steps to manage it nervousness; identify
speakers with trait anxiety often write out speech in manuscript form, which actually increases stress & anxiety, making you sound even more nervous
"I am relaxed and in control while giving speeches," is a(n) good positive statement
preparing & practiving, warming up, concentrating on message, planning intro that relaxes us/audience, using visual aids, and using positive imagery are all ways to manage situational anxiety
positive imagery, systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring, and skills training are all ways to manage trait anxiety