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Chemical Bonding I

Simple Models

ionic bond attraction between oppositely-charged ions
Coulomb's law describes the force of attraction between oppositely-charged particles
lattice energy energy that is released by the formation of an ionic bond
can lattice energy be measured directly? no
Lewis created simple model for predicting the structures of covalent compounds
What do the atoms do in ionic compounds? nonmetal atoms steal electrons from metal atoms
what do the electrons do in covalent compounds electrons pairs are shared between atoms
Why do atoms share electrons? to attain a noble gas configuration; to have the same # of electrons in its outermost orbital as a nobel gas
Why are hydrogen diatomic instead of monatomic? because the two hydrogen atoms become much more stable by sharing their electrons. They want to reach a noble gas state.
how many electrons does hydrogen "need"? two, so it is an exception to the octet rule
Steps for drawing Lewis Structures 1: find the # of valence electrons; 2) skeleton structure 3)satisfy the octet rule; remaining electrons go on central atom 4)make double bonds if necessary
What are the elements are frequently make double bonds? carbon (C), oxygen (O), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P)
Does chlorine, bromine, and iodine make double bonds? yes, when they are the central atoms, not the terminal
Which elements never make double bonds? fluorine and hydrogen
What does the charges on the polyatomic ions mean? mean that there is an extra electron that we must count
which is shorter, double bond are single bond? double bond. Triple bond are shorter than double bond
X-ray diffraction a technique that allows us to determine bond lengths
Why are formal charges useful? to help us determine which Lewis structure is the best
Formal for Formal Charge FC = # of valence electron -(# unshared electrons + 1/2 # of shared electrons)
The status of the formal charges 0 is good; +1 and -1 aren't bad; +2 and -2 are pushing things; +3 and -3 (and higher) are terrible
Electronegativity the ability of an atom to attract shared electrons to itself
What element is the most electronegative? Flourine (F)
the trend for electronegative increase from left to right across a period, and decrease from top to bottom in a group
Atoms with higher electronegativity are more stable with what? stable with a negative formal charge
atoms with a lower electronegativity are more stable with what? a positive formal charge
What element is an exception to the octet rule? Boron (only needs 6 electron); Be only needs 4
radicals when we get odd numbers of valence electrons
Where would the odd electron be place? on the atom that has the odd # of valence electron
What is the reason that atoms can accomodate more than 8 electrons? because they have empty d orbitals
What are the common elements that are central atoms that have more than 8 electrons around them? Cl, Br, I, S, Se, P
What elements can never have more than 8 electrons? C, N, O, F
strength mean the amount of energy required to break a covalent bond between two atoms
Which is stronger, multiple bonds between two elements or single bonds between the same two element? multiple bonds
Created by: Tiffastic