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7th Grade History

Chapter 7

1. What two countries make up the Iberian Peninsula? 1. Spain 2. Portugal
2. What continent was settled by the people of the Iberian Peninsula? South America
3. Why is the area of South and Central America often called Latin America? Because these two countries are Latin in origin.
4. Even though Spain claimed and colonized many lands, what two things frustrated them at first? 1. The lack of a direct route to China. 2. The fact that the Indians they met were poor.
5. What is the Line of Demarcation? The line that told where which country could explore and lay claim to certain areas.
6. Who decided where the Line of Demarcation was? Pope Alexander VI
7a. Which country could lay claim to everything east of the line? Portugal
7b. Which country could lay claim to everything west of the line? Spain
8a. What agreement re-established the Line of Demarcation? Treaty of Tordesillas
8b. In what year was the line moved? 1494
9. What did British Guiana become? Guyana
10. What did Dutch Guiana become? Suriname
11. Who are the creoles? People of pure Spanish or Portuguese descent born in the Americas.
12. What are exported goods? Goods taken outside the country to be sold.
13. What are imported goods? Goods brought into the country.
14. How was the colonial land in the New World divided by the Portuguese? It was divided into 12 captaincies that were ruled by nobles.
15. What title were these nobles given? Donatorios
16. Why did King John of Portugal buy the captaincy of Bahia from its donatorio? To bring it into greater Portuguese control.
17. Who was the first governor general of Brazil? Thome de Souza
18. What was a viceroy's job? The king appointed him to rule each colony.
19. What do the two parts of the word viceroy mean? vice - in place of roy - king
20. What is the longest uninterrupted mountain barrier in the world? The Andes range
21. What is the second longest river in the world? The Amazon River
22. What is the Pampas of the River Plate region known for? It is known for its fertile grasslands.
23. Did the Spanish government ever officially approve of enslaving the native South Americans? No.
24. What is an encomienda? A reward given by the Spanish to a conquistador. It was an estate or property that often included Indian labor force.
25a. Who saw the unfair treatment of the Indians and spoke out against it? Bartolome de Las Casas
25b. What law that has protected Indians was passed because of this friar? The New Laws of 1542.
26. What are mestizos? People with Indian and Spanish parents.
27. What brought about the expulsion (removal) of the Jesuit Order from the New World? Jealousy over profits and power.
28a. When were the Jesuits expelled by the Portuguese? 1759
28b. When were the Jesuits expelled by the Spanish? 1767
29. What 3 things happened after the Jesuit priests left? 1. The Indian mission land and buildings fell into disrepair. 2. Many Indians went back to their former way of life. 3. The education system that the order had set up was undermined.
30. What were the two major exports of colonial Latin America? refined sugar and refined silver
31. Is coffee native to South America? No.
32a. Briefly describe coffee's history. It is originally from Arabia, and the plants were taken by the Dutch to Java (Indonesia). The Dutch gave plants to gardens in Europe.
32b. A dishonest soldier stole a plant from a French garden to bring with him to the Caribbean island of Martinique, where he thought it would do well. It did. The plant was brought to Brazil in 1727.
33a. Describe a wealthy person's house in a South American city. 33
33b. How many stories? 2 stories
33c. What was the first floor for? The first floor was for business, with rooms for workers and servants.
33d. What was the second floor for? The second floor was for family apartments.
33e. What was in the center of the whole house? And interior courtyard
33f. Where was the kitchen? The kitchen was in a separate building at the back of the house.
34. Why didn't Latin Americans settle on individual family farms? Because the government didn't promote private ownership of land.
35. What is a hacienda? Huge country estates owned by wealthy men.
36. Which of South America's most famous Brazilian artists was afflicted with leprosy? Antonio Lisboa
37. What were his best known works? The statues of 12 prophets.
38a. How were these made? 38
38b. Materials they were made of. Made of soapstone.
38c. Artistic style. In the artistic style of the mannerists.
38d. Were the statues angular and realistic or soft images of perfect people? The statues were angular and realistic.
39. The haciendado was like the lord of the medieval manor. Name 3 ways they were similar. 1. He had complete control over life in the hacienda. 2. He provided homes, land, necessities, and protection for the peons. 3. He was their ruler and judge.
40. Describe a gaucho. Like American cowboys, the gauchos of Argentina are a symbol of rugged independence.
41. Who did San Martin choose as his troops? The gauchos of Argentina.
42. Where did San Martin send his troops by ship in August 1820? Pisco, Peru
43. What other name was Simon Bolivar known as? The Liberator
44. What happened to Bolivar during his last campaign? He fell gravely ill with tuberculosis.
45. Who were the caudillos? Strong men who overthrew weak governments. Usually they were military leaders who were dictators.
46. How did Brazil receive its independence? As a result of Portugal's capture by Napolean of France. The Portuguese royalty fled to Brazil and declared it the center of the Portuguese empire.
47. Who was crowned emperor of independent Brazil? Pedro I
Essay 1a. Know how class divisions affected South America. There was extreme prejudice based on economic and racial distinctions. The divisions between the Spanish born in Spain, creoles, mestizos, and Indians were distinct.
Essay 1b. There was no place in government or high society for anyone of less than pure Spanish blood unless he was wealthy. Classism caused great discontent especially among the wealthy creoles and the mestizos.
Essay 1c. Unfortunately, this same classism later made it difficult for the colonists to fight together against the Spanish.
Essay 2a. Be able to compare and contrast how the Spanish colonies achieved independence and Brazil's path to independence. -Spanish colonies achieved independence by fighting Spain under the leadership of Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin. They fought from 1816-1830.
Essay 2b. -Brazil achieved independence without violence. Their independence came as a result of Portugal's capture by Napolean of France. Pedro I refused to return to Portugal and was crowned emporer of independent Brazil in 1822.
Essay 3a. Know how European influence affected Simon Bolivar. His uncle sent him to Spain in 1799 to complete his education, where he assembled with several dissidents who convinced him that South America was ready for independence. He became a leader in the fight for independence in South America.
Created by: LiseBrinkley