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Nutrition 10

Test 1

True or False. All amino acids have nitrogen? True
2 purposes of consuming food -provides energy -rebuild body (hair, skin, blood, etc.)
What are the 6 classes of nutrients? Protein, Carbohydrate, Fat, Mineral, Vitamin, Water
What are the 3 functions of nutrients? Give an example for each. 1. Energy- potential energy in chemical bonds released --> heat & calories (proteins, carbs, fats 2. Structure- Calcium, protein --> bone structure; water 3. Regulatory- protein --> regulates body fluid balance
What is the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)? the daily amount of nutrients considered adequate to meet the needs of nearly all healthy people (not a minimum or average need)
What is Digestion? The process by which food is broken down into a form that can be absorbed in the intestine; break down of food to be ready for bodily absorption
the 2 types of digestion 1. mechanical (physical)- in the mouth, esophagus, and 2. chemical (enzyme breakdown)- stomach, small intestine
What is homeostasis? Maintenance of relatively constant internal conditions controlled by many systems in the body
Purpose 1 of protein... source of nitrogen
What are the basic units of a protein? How many are there? And what makes them different from one another? Amino Acids. 20 (1-9= essential; 10-20= NEAA). They differ by R-group
Why are the first 9 aa essential? R-groups can't be manufactured by the body and are needed through a food source
What determines protein function? protein structure
What are the 3 functions of protein? 1. structure (bone, connective tissue *collagen) 2. Energy (protein-->chem bonds release energy); no storage of protein (all functional tissue) 3. Regulatory (hormones-insulin; enzymes-catalyst; immune system)
true or false: All amino acids have Nitrogen true
Where are proteins and fats metabolized? mitochondria
Where are proteins made? the endoplasmic reticulum
What is protein turnover? What is the purpose? recycling of amino acids. allows body to adopt to changing needs for specific proteins. making and breaking down of proteins aren't 100% efficient.
What are the different rates of protein turnover? 1. Fast: intestine, blood 2. Medium: muscle, skin 3. Slow: brain, central nervous system (CNS
What happens to proteins that don't turn over? lost from the body and must be replenished (hair, nails, skin, stool)
Protein Deficiency 1. Early Development: pregnant-1.5 years; stunting of growth, mental retardation, affected brain development 2. later development: cell size increases
Conditions linked to protein deficiency: edema- fluid balance disrupted intestinal problems distended abdomen- fatty liver Infections (high turnover proteins affected most dramatically)
RDA for protein (3 steps) 1. minimum 2. adjust for population variability 3. adjust for diet quality
Protein Requirement: (.8 g protein) x (body weight in kg) per day
Factors that change protein needs 1. growth: requirement lowers as rate of growth decreases (infants need 2 g per kg of body weight) 2. pregnancy: lactation --> +25 g per day 3. Injury & Illness 4. Exercise- approximately 50% above RDA
Daily Value for protein (DV) 50 g in a 2000 calorie diet
other DV... 1. fat- 65 g. 2. carbs- 300 g 3. saturated fat- 20 g 4. cholesterol- 300 mg 5. fiber- 25 g
What is a complete protein? Has all 9 EAA (all in amounts proportional to need) digestible ex: eggs, breast milk, soy food, beef & other meat, milk products
Incomplete protein examples... grains, vegetables, kidney beans, cashews, sesame seeds
What is Protein Efficiency Ration (PER) weight gained/protein eaten (high: fish & milk protein; low: white flower protein)
Chemical Score is... compares food protein EAA levels relative to Egg white EAA levels lowest percentage is chem. score
Why is it impossible to feed a 12 month old child black eyed peas as exclusive protein? 1. a growing child has high need for EAA & protein 2. Black eyed peas are an incomplete protein and therefor have a low level of EAA 3. Child would eat so many that it would exceed caloric needand volume of food consumption to meet needs for EAA
Health Considerations of Vegetarianism: may decrease risk for chronic diseases compared to animal protein based diets ex: grain + legumes = complete proteins 1 1/4 cups of rice & 1 cup of lentils = 3 oz. chicken
What is a calorie? KCAL the heat needed to raise 1 liter of water 1 degree Celcius
What is heat? potential heat released from chemical bonds
What is the purpose of a bomb calorimeter? determines the total potential energy in food
Where potential energy goes... bomb calorimeter caculations carbs 4.2 Kcal/g (body gets 4 Kcal/g-->Physiological fuel value; 5% lost to stool) protein 5.7 Kcal/g (body gets 4 Kcal/g and 10% lost to stool) fat 9.5 Kcal/g (body gets 9 Kcal and 5% lost to stool)
Examples of things that don't have calories... water, fiber, vitamins, minerals, cholesterol
What is the Basic Metabolic Rate (BMR)? Heat/Energy needed to keep basic bodily functions going such as heart and lung function measured: at rest; 12 hour fasting; 24 hours with no exercise; and neutral room temp. approximately 1000-2000 calories
What is the Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)? Heat/Energy need to digest food 50-200 calories
What are the 4 components of calculating caloric need? Basic Metabolic Rate, Thermic Effect of Food, Activity, and Growth
Factors that change BMR Age, Fasting , and Exercise
Functions of Carbs... structure, food source, regulation 1/2 total calories crucial for brain & muscle
Monosaccharide types... simple carb/sugar; 6-carbon ring + water Glucose: blood, starch Fructose: fruit sugar Galactose: 1/2 milk sugar
Disaccharides... 2 sugars; simple carb/sugars Sucrose: table sugars Maltose: malt, seed/bean sprout (breakdown unit of starch) Lactose: milk sugar (Glucose + Galactose)
Difference between fructose corn syrup and sucrose... sucrose has peptide bond
Polysaccharides... many sugars; complex carbs starch-->hundreds/thousands of glucose in plants: vegetables, grains, unripe fruit, potato, pasta, rice
What is fiber? glucose of other monosaccharides linked in long chains; the linkage between sugar units isn't digestible by human enzymes
What is glycogen? basic unit=glucose animal "starch" made from hundreds of glucose units in a long chain w/ many branches. Glycogen is stored in the muscle & liver of humans and other animals but no food source.
Water-Insoluble fiber 1. Water-insoluble: cellulose source: whole grain & vegetable holds water and bulks up intestine, speeds waste passage benefits: relieves constipation, prevents hemorrhoids, helps prevent intestinal disease & cancer
Water-Soluble fiber gums, pectins sources: fruits, beans, oats benefit: lowers blood cholesterol, helps lower heart disease risk, forms gel
What is fiber? structural material in plants indigestible carb 0 calories ends up in stool
Created by: 1210941700