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Semester Exam 1

which axis of a graph is the dependent variable plotted? vertical
On which axis of a graph is the independent variable plotted? horizontal
step that results in a hypothesis being “educated?” gathering information
hypothesis an educated guess for a question or problem
scientific process often begins with posing questions
A basketball has a mass of 260 grams quantitative observation
kilo 1,000
measure of the amount of matter in an object mass
used to measure the mass of an object triple beam balance
used to measure the volume of a liquid graduated cylinder
particles in atoms have a negative electric charge electrons
number of protons equals the number of electrons
only particles found in the nucleus of an atom protons and neutrons
have no charge; they are considered neutral neutrons
located outside of the nucleus, orbiting around it electrons
positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom protons
Neutrons are located in the nucleus
atomic number number of protons
most reactive metals group 1
Elements are in a particular column of the periodic table because number of valence electrons
noble gases are located in group group 18
Which type of element do groups 13-17 all contain? metalloids
How many valence electrons does an atom of Chlorine have? 7
How many protons does an atom of Boron have? 5
How many total electrons does an atom of Helium have? 2
Atoms of the element Carbon have how many valence electrons? 4
Group 17, the halogens, contains mostly which type of element? nonmetals
What happens when chemical bonds break and new bonds form? chemical reaction
what does the law of conservation of mass mean? Matter is not created or destroyed
Ionic bonds form between metal and nonmetal
A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons covalent
When an atom gains an electron, it becomes a negative ion
ionic compound NaCl
attractive force between atoms that have transferred valence electrons ionic bond
When an atom loses one or more electrons positive ion
Covalent compounds form between nonmetals
covalent compound C3H8O
mixture that appears uniform throughout solution
solute is present in a smaller amount
molecules move from an area of __ concentration to an area of ___ concentration higher, lower
osmosis is the process of _____ movement water
hypotonic solution water moves into the cell
hypertonic solution water moves out of the cell
isotonic solution water moves equally in and out of cell
solute gets dissolved
solvent does the dissolving
solvent is present in a larger amount
acids produce __ ions hydrogen
bases produce __ ions hydroxide
pH scale measures concentration of hydrogen ions
Concentration of H ions is high pH is low
Concentration of H ions is low pH is high
material used to increase the rate of a chemical reaction catalyst
how to supply activation energy to begin a reaction heat it up
minimum amount of energy that has to be added to start a reaction activation energy
increase in temperature affects the rate of a chemical reaction gives particles more energy
increase in surface area affects the rate of a chemical reaction speeds up the reaction
increase in concentration of reactants affects the rate of a chemical reaction supplies more particles to react
Created by: asnellgrove