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JRA SS Final 10-11

Archaeology, Early Humans, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Greece

archaeology The systematic recovery and study of tools, graves, buildings, pottery, and other remains of past human life and culture.
fossils The remains or imprint of a once-living thing from a past geological age.
artifacts Man-made objects of historical importance or interest.
oral tradition Myths, stories, and legends passed down from one generation to the next by word of mouth.
primary sources Documents that were written at, or near, the time of the events that they describe.
secondary sources Sources of information that are created by people who have studied the primary sources, but who were not eye-witnesses,
cultural dating Comparing an object to information already known to determine its age, origin, etc.
scientific dating When scientists use a laboratory process to determine an object's age.
plinian eruption A volcanic eruption extending high into the stratosphere, a high layer of the atmosphere.
Pliny the Younger The man who wrote a letter to Tacticus about his uncle's death in relationship with Vesuvius's eruption in 79 AD.
Pliny the Elder The uncle of Pliny the Younger who voyaged out towards Vesuvius and supposedly died from the gases.
Vesuvius A mountain that erupted in Pompeii in 79 AD and caused a big amount of fear and pain.
Stone Age The first period of prehistoric human culture from about 2 million years ago to around 3000 BCE when humans made tools out of stones.
Paleolithic Age The first period of the Stone Age, called the "Old Stone Age" from about 2 million years ago to 8000 BCE.
Neolithic Age The later part of the Stone Age, called the "New Stone Age" from about 8000 to 3000 BCE.
hominids Prehistoric humans.
prehistory The time period before the invention of writing.
Hunter-gatherer A person who gets their food by hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants, roots, nuts, and berries.
domesticate To train a wild animal or plant to become more useful to humans.
agriculture The business of farming (raising plants and animals).
specialized To have a specific purpose.
trade The business of buying and selling or exchanging items.
obsidian A type of ore that was black volcanic glass and was a natural resource often used in early trade.
ore A mineral mined for its valuable uses.
Sumer An area of Southern Mesopotamia where the world's first cities and civilization developed.
Assyria A Mesopotamian empire known for its strong military and harsh methods of ruling over conquered areas.
Hammurabi Ruler of Babylonia who created a code of 187 laws that tried to make fair rules for everyone, especially the poor, women, and children.
fertile Good for farming and planting crops. -Fresh water, not salt water -Soil with rich nutrients
delta A triangular area of sediment buildup at the mouth of a river where it flows into the ocean or sea.
mosaics Decorations that can be made of small pieces of glass, stone, wood, etc.
cylinder seal A round tube-like device rolled in clay to leave an imprint of a symbol or signature on a letter or document.
Fertile Crescent An area of the Middle and Near East where there is fresh water and fertile soil.
polytheism A belief in more than one god.
metalworking A process of mining and then melting metal ore in order to shape it into useful objects.
justice -Fairness -Right vs. Wrong
code An organized collection of laws or rules.
ziggurat A Mesopotamian temple building that had a small shrine at the top and storage areas inside for surplus grain.
Nubia Also known as Kush, a kingdom directly south of Egypt along the Nile River that provided Egyptians with luxury trade goods such as gold, ivory, ebony wood, and animal skins.
Nile Delta Triangular area of fertile land in northern Egypt where the Nile River meets the Mediterranean Sea.
Upper Egypt All of Egypt south of the Nile Delta.
Lower Egypt The Nile Delta area.
Pharoah Ruler of Egypt who was believed to be a living god.
Theocracy A government system where the ruler is believed to be divine.
Dynasty A family or group that rules for several generations.
Deity Another name for a god.
Afterlife According to some religions, the life that follows this one.
Mummification A process of embalming, or preserving, dead bodies in order to prevent decomposition.
Book of the Dead A collection of charms, religious songs, and magical spells that Egyptians believed would help a person's soul to reach the afterlife.
Pyramid A 3-dimensional, four-sided structure built by ancient Egyptians to protect their pharoah's tombs during the Old and Middle Kingdoms.
Sphinx A type of statue with the body of a lion and the head of a man, often found at the entrance to temples and near tombs.
Valley of the Kings A valley across the Nile River from Luxor where New Kingdom pharoahs tried to hide their tombs from grave robbers.
Inundation The yearly flooding of the Nile River that lasted for three months.
Silt Rich mud left behind after the inundation that fertilized farm fields.
Hieroglyphics Egyptian writing that started as pictographs.
Papyrus Paper made from reeds that grew along the banks of the Nile River.
Scribes Professional writers and record keepers.
Oxen Used for shields, furniture, farming, tributes to the pharoah, meat, and sacrifices to the gods.
Ivory Made from an elephant's tusks and used for small objects such as jewelry.
Ostrich Eggs Used for perfume containers.
Giraffe Symbolized the conquering of other lands by the pharoah.
Ebony Used for things such as chairs and boxes.
Gold Used for small objects like jewelry.
Gold Chains Used for rewards to people who fought in the war.
Zoser He and his advisor, Imhotep, began the tradition of building pyramid tombs that lasted more than 1,000 years. About 100 of them are still standing today!
Hatshepsut Queen who declared herself pharoah and ruled for 20 years after her husband died, while her step-son, Tuthmosis III, had to wait! She established good trade relationships with Egypt's neighbors.
Akhenaten Monotheistic pharoah who forced Egyptians to worship only Aten, a sun god. He was hated by priests of other gods for closing their temples. He made a new style of artwork and an all-new capital city, Amarna.
Tutankhamen Boy-king who was expected to re-establish polytheism after Akhenaten died. He died around 18 or 19 years old. His tomb was discovered, undisturbed, by Howard Carter in 1922 A.D.
Old Kingdom 2600-2200 B.C. The kingdom when Egyptians built the great pyramids.
Middle Kingdom 2000-1600 B.C. The kingdom when Egyptians achieved a great deal in literature, art, and architecture.
New Kingdom 1500-1000 B.C. The kingdom when Egyptians conquered other lands by building an empire.
Osiris He is either green or black (which represents the fertility of the Nile River), and he is wrapped up. He is the god the afterlife, the underworld, and fertility.
Horus He has the head of a falcon. He is the god of the sky.
Isis She wears a throne-shaped crown, has wings, and is all human. She is the goddess of magic spells and protection.
Ma'at She carries an ostrich feather and is all human. She is the goddess of justice.
Anubis He has the head of a jackal. He is the god of embalming.
Hathor She has the head of a cow. She is the goddess of love and beauty.
Mut She has the head of a vulture. She is the goddess of mothers.
Thoth He has the head of a long-billed ibis. He is the god of wisdom and knowledge.
Bastet She sits with a cat at her side. She is the goddess of hearths and homes.
Bes He is short, ugly, naked, and hairy. He is the god of family, children, and happy marriges.
Howard Carter A British archaeologist who discovered Tutankhamen's tomb in 1922 AD.
Giovanni Belzoni A British man who discovered Rameses II's tomb at Abu Simbel and Seti I's tomb.
Jean-Francois Champollion A French man who was one of the first people to retranslate the Rosetta Stone.
Drovetti A French archaeologist who became Giovanni Belzoni's rival.
Abu Simbel A tomb discovered by Giovanni Belzoni that was built by Rameses II.
Rameses II A pharoah who built the tomb at Abu Simbel along with many other tombs.
Seti I A pharoah who's tomb was discovered by Giovanni Belzoni in the Valley of the Kings.
Rosetta Stone An artifact that consisted of three languages: Egyptian hieroglyphics, Greek, and Demotic.
peninsula An area of land surrounded on three sides by water.
colony A settlement in a distant place.
maritime trade Trade, or economic activity, that takes place using the sea for transportation.
settlement A small community or village.
city-state An early city that was like a small independent country with its own laws and government.
merchants People who make money by selling goods.
Macedonia A neighboring kingdom north of the Ancient Greeks.
Attica The central region of ancient Greece where the city-state of Athens was located.
Peloponnesus The southern region of Greece, a peninsula, where the city-states of Sparta, Mycenae, and Olympia were located.
Persia -Largest empire in the time of the Persian Wars -Monarchy -Ruled over Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and parts of India and Europe
Asia Minor (Modern-day Turkey) Region of land on the eastern side of the Aegean Sea, where Troy and many Greek colonies were located.
Crete Largest island in the Mediterranean Sea with rich farmland. Location of one of Greece's earliest civilizations, the Minoans, who were a highly advanced and peaceful society.
Hellespont The long, narrow, body of water between Europe and Asia that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea.
Mediterranean Sea Large body of water located between Europe and Africa.
Aegean Sea Body of water located between Greece and Turkey, containing hundreds of small islands.
Black Sea Large in-land sea located north of modern-day Turkey and east of Bulgaria. In ancient times, this was a region with rich mineral resources.
Athens One of the earliest and strongest Greek city-states, known for its dedication to learning and the arts, as well as the development of democracy.
Sparta A Greek city-state known for its dedication to military training and strict lifestyle.
Troy A Greek settlement in Asia Minor made famous in Homer's story of the Trojan War.
Mycenae Ancient kingdom located on the Peloponnesus. Very powerful between 1400 and 1100 B.C.
Some of the dangers with travel Mountains, robbers, pirates, and storms
Five crops Greeks grew Grapes, olives, fruit, vegetables,and nuts.
Five animals Greeks raised Sheep, goats, donkeys, chickens, and bees
Three products Greeks used for trading Pottery, olive oil, and wine
Three products Greeks got from trading Grain, leather, and wood
Cronus The father of all the modern Greek gods.
Rhea The mother of all the modern Greek gods.
Zeus Roles: King of the gods, god of air and weather. Description: Husband of Hera. Symbol: Thunderbolt. Sacred Place: Olympia. Festival: Olympics.
Hera Roles: Queen of the gods, goddess of marriage and women. Description: Wife of Zeus. Symbols: Cow and peacock. Sacre Place: Every Greek home.
Athena Role: Goddess of wisdom, crafts, and strategy. Description: Carries shield with Medusa's head. Symbols: Owl and olive tree. Sacred Place: Parthenon in Athens. Festival: Games similar to Olympics.
Apollo Role: God of prophecy, light, archery, music, and medicine. Description: Twin brother of Artemis. Symbols: Bow and arrow, lyre, dolphin, and crow. Sacred Place: Oracle of Delphi in Thessaly. Festival: Pythian games.
Demeter Role: Goddess of vegetation and harvest. Description: Mother of Persephone who was captured by Hades. Symbol: Grain. Sacred Place: Eleusis.
Poseidon Role: God of the sea and earthquakes. Description: Brother of Zeus and Hades. Symbols: Horse and trident. Sacred Place: Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sounion.
Aphrodite Role: Goddess of beauty and love. Description: Wife of Hephaestus, but in love with Ares. Symbols: Swan, dove, myrtle, and magic golden girdle. Sacred Place: Cyprus.
Hermes Role: Messenger god, god of thieves, merchants, and gymnastics, and guides souls to the Underworld. Description: Son of Zeus. Symbols: Winged sandals, herald's staff, and wide-brimmed traveler's hat. Sacred Place: Crossroad.
Artemis Role: Goddess of the hunt, wild things, and little children. Description: Twin sister of Apollo. Symbols: Crescent moon diadem, silver bow and arrow, and stag. Sacre Places: Sparta and Ephesus in Asia Minor.
Ares Role: God of war. Description: In love with Aphrodite. Symbols: Armor, shield, spear, dog, and vulture. Sacred Place: Sparta.
Hephaestus Role: God of fire and blacksmiths. Description: Ugly, limps, and Aphrodite's husband. Symbols: Blacksmith's hammer and volcano. Sacred Place: Island of Lemnos.
Dionysus Role: God of wine, happiness, and insanity. Description: Invented wine. Symbols: Grapes, snake, and panther. Festival: Play competition held every year in Athens.
Hades Role: God of wealth and ruler of the Underworld. Description: Does not live on Mount Olympus. Symbols: Helmet of invisibility, two-pronged staff, and Cerebus. Festival: Secular games held every 100 years.
Hestia Role: Goddess of the home and family peace. Description: Gave up her spot on Mount Olympus for Dionysus, and remained neutral in all disagreements of the gods.
Trojan War The war between the Greeks and the Trojans because of the Helen.
Eris The goddess of hate and argument who rolled the golden apple into the room on Mount Olympus.
Thetis A goddess who married Peleus and gave birth to Achilles, who she dipped in the River Styx.
Achilles A famous Greek hero who's only weak spot is his heel, does not want to fight in the Trojan War until later, kills Hector and ties him to a chariot, and is killed by Paris.
Helen The daughter of Zeus and Leda who caused the Trojan War by running away from Menelaus with Paris.
Leda The wife of Tyndareus who had an affair with Zeus and gave birth to Helen.
Peleus The mortal man who married Thetis.
Cassandra The daughter of Priam and Hecuba who refused to go to Mount Olympus with Apollo, was able to see the future, went crazy, and was captured by Agamemnon.
Lacoon A Trojan man who warned Priam about Greeks bearing gifts and was eaten by a serpent.
Agamemnon The husband of Clytemnestra who had to sacrifice Iphigenia, finally gave back his servant girl, and stole Achilles servant girl.
Clytemnestra Wife of Agamemnon who is feared by her husband and gets a new husband while her old one is at war.
Hector The oldest son of Priam and Hecuba who killed Patroclus and was killed by Achilles.
Hecuba The wife of Priam who had a dream the her baby would destroy Troy and was captured in the war.
Iphigenia The daughter of Agamemnon who was not afraid to be sacrificed, and was saved by Artemis at the last second to become one of her priestesses.
Menelaus The king of Sparta who becomes friends with Paris until he runs away with Helen, took his army to the sanctuary of Artemis, and eventually brought Helen back to Sparta.
Odysseus The king of Ithaca who creates the Oath of Tyndareus and took 20 years to get back to his homeland.
Paris The youngest son of Priam and Hecuba who was raised by Priam's huntsman, gives the golden apple to Aphrodite, goes to Troy to save his cow Daisy, runs away with Helen, killed Achilles, and dies from a wound.
Patroclus The best friend of Achilles who dressed up like Achilles and was killed by Hector.
Priam The husband of Hecuba who was supposed to kill his son Paris, saves Paris in a dangerous situation, begs Achilles for Hector's body, and is killed by Achilles's son.
Tyndareus The husband of Leda who had to find a suitable husband for Helen.
"Golden Apple" The apple that Eris rolls onto the floor on Mount Olympus that causes Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite to have a fight about.
"Oath of Tyndareus" The oath invented by Odysseus that says the man who marries Helen will not be harmed, and if that man needs help, the bachelors who wanted to marry Helen would come to his aid.
"The face that launched a thousand ships" A phrase that represents the Greek army heading towards Troy for the beautiful Helen.
"Achilles's heel" A saying that means someone's weak point on their body, such as Achilles with his heel.
"Don't be such a Cassandra" A saying that means not to be negative all the time.
"Beware the Greeks bearing gifts" A phrase that Lacoon says to Priam when the Greeks bring out the Trojan Horse.
"Trojan Horse" A giant wooden horse that the Greeks made to trick the Trojans into thinking that it was a gift, but the Greeks really hid in there and burned Troy.
"Hubris" A word that means having overconfidence.
Aulis A Greek shore that was the meeting place of the Greek army.
Ithaca An island west of Greece that was ruled by Odysseus.
Mount Olympus The floating landform in the sky where the party for the marriage of Thetis and Peleus was held.
polis Ancient Greek word for "city-state."
citizen A person who owes allegiance to, and is protected by, a particular political power.
economy The way a community or region organizes the manufacture and exchange of money, food, products and services.
Assembly Gathering of citizens in each polis. The power of the assembly varied from polis to polis.
agora The market place in a Greek polis.
voting Making ones choices or wishes known; a right usually present in more democratic societies.
laws Guidelines accepted by a government or community as applying to all members of that community.
constitution A system of basic guidelines by which a community or state is governed or organized.
monarchy A government system in which one person rules. Usually, the oldest male child takes over when the monarch dies.
military Armed forces or soldiers.
tyranny A single ruler who takes power over the government by force. Their power is not limited by any kind of constitution or laws that may have existed before they took over.
men, public, women, private, wives, mothers In most Greek city-states, --- were expected to take part in the ------ life of their city-state. ----- were expected to lead a ------- life as ----- and -------.
women, active In Sparta, ----- lived more ------ lives.
families, boy, olive, leaves, girl, sheep, wool In Athens, -------- announced the birth of a --- by pinning ----- ------ to the front door. For a ----, they would pin ----- ---- to the door.
babies, elders, healthy In Sparta, ------ were inspected by the ------ to make sure they were -------.
man, public, useless Athenians though of a --- who took no part in ------ affairs as completely -------.
agora, shop, gossip At the -----, Athenians would go to ---- and catch up on all the ------.
male, assembly, vote, debate, issues In Athens, ---- citizens went to the -------- to ---- and ------ important ------.
grain, timber, Piraeus Most of the ----- and ------ that Athens needed was shipped to -------.
high, city, Acropolis, temples The "---- ----," or ---------, was where Athens' sacred ------- were located.
two, kings, council, elders, assembly, citizens Sparta was ruled by --- -----, a ------- of ------, and an -------- of --------.
oligarchy Form of government where a small group of people hold all the political power.
Council of Elders The Spartan oligarchs who shared equal power. They were elected by the Spartan assembly & were at least 60 years old. They could stop laws passed by the Spartan assembly.
helots Spartan slaves who had been captured in war. They did all the farming in Sparta.
perioikoi Spartan non-citizens who performed all non-military jobs and had no political rights.
self-sufficient Independent; taking care of own needs without help.
Ares & Artemis Patron god & goddess of Sparta.
Lycurgus Ancient Spartan who created the law code of ancient Sparta.
Ephors 5 Elders who served as special advisors to Sparta's two kings.
democracy Form of government where all citizens have an equal vote in political decisions.
Council of 500 Group of Athenian citizens chosen by lottery to run the day-to-day business of Athens and to propose new laws.
gynasium Place where Athenians gathered to exercise, bath, and discuss philosophy and politics.
metics Foreigners living in the polis of Athens. They were not allowed to vote, but could own property.
Athena Patron goddess of Athens.
Solon Ancient Greek responsible for creating the law code of ancient Athens.
ostracism When citizens who were considered dangerous to the polis were banished, or exiled, from the city.
Ionia -Region of Asia Minor, along the coast of the Aegean Sea, where many Greek colonies were located.
Marathon -Open plain near ocean -Athenians beat the first Persian attack on Greece -Runner ran 26 miles from here to Athens to tell about the victory and dropped dead; this is where we got the tradition of the 26-mile run -490 B.C. -Spartans would not help
Thermopylae -Mountain pass -Battle in Persian Wars -Leonidas + Spartans he led were slaughtered after they were surrounded -480 B.C. -Xerxes killed Leonidas + burned down Athens
Salamis -Island off coast of Athens -Battle in Persian Wars -Themistocles tricked Persians into going into narrow channel -Sank 200 of the Persian ships -200=half of ships
Plataea -Last battle in Persian wars -Greeks defeated last of Persian army -Sparta + Athens -Xeres fled
triremes -War ships -Three rows of oarsmen
hoplites Greek foot soldiers
"The Immortals" Elite Persian soldiers
"Oracle of Delphi" -Predicted the future -Priestess of Apollo
Xerxes King of Persia
Leonidas -Spartan king -Led Spartans at Thermopylae
Themistocles -Athenian politician -Lead navy battles at Thermopylae and Salamis
Herodotus -"The Father of History: -Wrote a factual record of the events of the Persian Wars
Ionian Revolt -The cause of the Persian Wars -Persia took over Ionia in Asia Minor -Athens won the Ionians freedom and made Persia mad
Pericles A popular Athenian general who led Athens during its Golden Age.
alliance (league) A formal agreement between two city-states to work together.
plague A highly contagious, widespread disease that is often fatal.
Delian League An alliance of city-states under Athens' leadership who agreed to help protect each other from Persia.
Peloponnesian League An alliance of city-states under Spartas' leadership who agreed to help end Athens' control of other Greek city-states.
Thucydides A Greek historian who wrote the history of the Peloponnesian Wars.
Golden Age -50 years of prosperity in Athens -Happened when Athens rebuilt city using Delian League money
Athens, Sparta, rivals ------ and ------ were ancient ------.
Athens, Delian, protect, Persia ------ controlled the ------ League; its purpose was to ------- Greece from ------.
Athens, force, league ------ had to ----- other city-states to stay in the ------.
Athens, money, league, rebuild, Athens ------ used the ----- from the ------ to ------- ------.
Sparta, Peloponnesian, Athens, controlling ------ controlled the ------------- League; its purpose was to stop ------ from ----------- other city-states.
Sparta, war, 431 ------ declared --- in --- B.C.
war, Athens, Sparta, 431, 404 The --- between ------ and ------ lasted from --- B.C. to --- B.C.
Sparta, surrounded, Athens, Athenians, supplies, ships ------ ---------- ------, but the --------- can still get -------- from their -----.
430, plague, 25, Athenians, Pericles In --- B.C., a ------ kills --% of ---------, including --------.
413, Athenian, navy, Sicily, Athens', allies, Sparta In --- B.C., the -------- ---- is beaten in ------ & many of ------' ------ join forces with ------.
Persia, Sparta, fleet, ships, Greek, destroy ------ helps ------ build a ----- of -----, hoping the ----- city-states would ------- each other.
405, Spartans, Athenian, navy In --- B.C., the -------- captured the -------- ----.
404, starvation, Athenians, surrender, Sparta, food, supply In --- B.C., ---------- forces the --------- to --------- after ------ cut off their ---- ------.
Sparta, Athens, destroy, Long, Walls, surrender, navy, ships, allow, exiles, return, Athens, acknowledge, supremacy, Sparta ------ requires ------ to ------- the ---- -----, --------- the ---- -----, ----- ------ to ------ to ------, and ----------- the --------- of ------.
Athenian, democracy, Sparta, democracy, oligarchy -------- --------- declines after ------ replaces --------- with ---------.
359, King, Philip, ruler, Macedonia, north, Greece In --- B.C., ---- ------ became ----- of ---------, a region ----- of ------.
Philip, Macedonia's, military, invented, weapons, battle, plans ------ strengthened ---------'- --------, ------- stronger -------, and created better ------ -----.
338, Philip, ruler, Greece In --- B.C., ------ became ----- of ------.
Philip, Greek, tutor, Aristotle, teach, son, Greek, accomplishments ------ hired a ----- ----- named --------- to ----- his young --- about ----- ---------------.
Philip, conquer, Persia, murdered As ------ was about to ------- ------, he was --------.
Alexander, Great, charge, kingdom, 20 --------- the ----- took ------ of his father's ------- at the age of --.
Alexander, revolts --------- put down ------- that came up.
Alexander, Persia, Egypt, east, border, India, army, refused, further --------- conquered ------, ----- and continued ---- as far as the ------ of -----, where his ---- ------- to go any -------.
Alexander, people, speak, Greek, read, Greek, literature After --------- conquered an area, many ------ liked to ----- ----- and ---- ----- ---------.
time, period, Greek, Eastern, cultures, combined, Hellenistic, Age The ---- ------ during which ----- and ------- -------- were -------- was called the ----------- ---.
332, Alexander, Alexandria, Egypt, museum, intellectual, 700, burned, Romans In --- B.C., --------- built ----------, a city located in -----, where a great ------ was built and remained an important ------------ center for about --- years until it was ------ down by the ------.
Alexander, Persian, Babylon, 32, Macedonia --------- died in the ------- city of ------- at the age of -- while returning to ---------.
5, generals, Alexander, controlling, empire, famous, Ptolemy, Egypt, Cleopatra - -------- of --------- ended up ----------- the different parts of the ------. The most ------ one was ------- who ruled ----- with his wife ---------.
Created by: math47ja on 2011-01-10

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